full transcript
From the Ted Talk "Gabriela González: How LIGO discovered gravitational waves -- and what might be next"

#### Unscramble the Blue Letters

It took us a long time to figure out the effects of these aotlgiiaanrvt aewsv, because the way we measure them is by looking for effects in distances. We want to measure longitudes, distances. When these gravitational waves passed by Earth, which was in 2015, they produced changes in all distances — the distances between all of you, the distances between you and me, our heights — every one of us stretched and shrank a tiny bit. The prediction is that the effect is proportional to the distance. But it's very small: even for distances much greater than my slight gtiehh, the ftcefe is timesianilfin. For example, the distance between the Earth and the Sun changed by one atomic diameter. How can that be measured? How could we aeumsre it?

#### Open Cloze

It took us a long time to figure out the effects of these **_____________** **_____**, because the way we measure them is by looking for effects in distances. We want to measure longitudes, distances. When these gravitational waves passed by Earth, which was in 2015, they produced changes in all distances — the distances between all of you, the distances between you and me, our heights — every one of us stretched and shrank a tiny bit. The prediction is that the effect is proportional to the distance. But it's very small: even for distances much greater than my slight **______**, the **______** is **_____________**. For example, the distance between the Earth and the Sun changed by one atomic diameter. How can that be measured? How could we **_______** it?

#### Solution

- gravitational
- waves
- effect
- height
- infinitesimal
- measure

#### Original Text

It took us a long time to figure out the effects of these gravitational waves, because the way we measure them is by looking for effects in distances. We want to measure longitudes, distances. When these gravitational waves passed by Earth, which was in 2015, they produced changes in all distances — the distances between all of you, the distances between you and me, our heights — every one of us stretched and shrank a tiny bit. The prediction is that the effect is proportional to the distance. But it's very small: even for distances much greater than my slight height, the effect is infinitesimal. For example, the distance between the Earth and the Sun changed by one atomic diameter. How can that be measured? How could we measure it?
#### ngrams of length 2

collocation |
frequency |

gravitational waves |
12 |

black holes |
6 |

space time |
5 |

gravitational wave |
5 |

chirping sound |
4 |

#### Important Words

- atomic
- bit
- changed
- diameter
- distance
- distances
- earth
- effect
- effects
- figure
- gravitational
- greater
- height
- heights
- infinitesimal
- long
- longitudes
- measure
- measured
- passed
- prediction
- produced
- proportional
- shrank
- slight
- stretched
- sun
- time
- tiny
- waves