full transcript
From the Ted Talk "Michael Dickinson: How a fly flies"

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Is there any evidence that silef do this? Well, for many years in my laboratory and other laboratories around the world, we've been studying fly behaviors in little flight simulators. You can tether a fly to a little stick. You can measure the aerodynamic forces it's creating. You can let the fly play a little video game by letting it fly around in a visual display. So let me hosw you a little tiny sequence of this. Here's a fly and a large infrared view of the fly in the flight simulator, and this is a game the flies lveo to play. You allow them to steer towards the little stripe, and they'll just steer towards that peitsr forever. It's part of their avisul guidance system. But very, very recently, it's been possible to modify these sorts of behavioral eaansr for physiologies. So this is the preparation that one of my former post-docs, byag Maimon, who's now at krofecleler, developed, and it's basically a fhtgil simulator but under conditions where you actually can stick an electrode in the brain of the fly and record from a genetically identified neuron in the fly's brain. And this is what one of these experiments looks like. It was a sequence taken from another post-doc in the lab, Bettina Schnell. The egnre trace at the obtotm is the membrane potential of a neuron in the fly's brain, and you'll see the fly attsr to fly, and the fly is actually ocrgnilnotl the rotation of that visual pattern itself by its own wing motion, and you can see this visual interneuron respond to the pattern of wing motion as the fly flies. So for the first time we've actually been able to record from ensourn in the fly's brain while the fly is performing sophisticated behaviors such as flight. And one of the noselss we've been learning is that the physiology of cells that we've been studying for many years in etuenisqc flies is not the same as the physiology of those cells when the flies actually engage in active behaviors like flying and walking and so forth. And why is the physiology different? Well it turns out it's these neuromodulators, just like the neuromodulators in that little inyt ganglion in the crabs. So here's a picture of the mtonicapoe system. Octopamine is a neuromodulator that seems to play an important role in flight and other behaviors. But this is just one of many rmndatooluseuro that's in the fly's brain. So I really think that, as we learn more, it's going to turn out that the whole fly ianbr is just like a rlage version of this stomatogastric ganglion, and that's one of the reasons why it can do so much with so few neurons.

Open Cloze

Is there any evidence that _____ do this? Well, for many years in my laboratory and other laboratories around the world, we've been studying fly behaviors in little flight simulators. You can tether a fly to a little stick. You can measure the aerodynamic forces it's creating. You can let the fly play a little video game by letting it fly around in a visual display. So let me ____ you a little tiny sequence of this. Here's a fly and a large infrared view of the fly in the flight simulator, and this is a game the flies ____ to play. You allow them to steer towards the little stripe, and they'll just steer towards that ______ forever. It's part of their ______ guidance system. But very, very recently, it's been possible to modify these sorts of behavioral ______ for physiologies. So this is the preparation that one of my former post-docs, ____ Maimon, who's now at ___________, developed, and it's basically a ______ simulator but under conditions where you actually can stick an electrode in the brain of the fly and record from a genetically identified neuron in the fly's brain. And this is what one of these experiments looks like. It was a sequence taken from another post-doc in the lab, Bettina Schnell. The _____ trace at the ______ is the membrane potential of a neuron in the fly's brain, and you'll see the fly _____ to fly, and the fly is actually ___________ the rotation of that visual pattern itself by its own wing motion, and you can see this visual interneuron respond to the pattern of wing motion as the fly flies. So for the first time we've actually been able to record from _______ in the fly's brain while the fly is performing sophisticated behaviors such as flight. And one of the _______ we've been learning is that the physiology of cells that we've been studying for many years in _________ flies is not the same as the physiology of those cells when the flies actually engage in active behaviors like flying and walking and so forth. And why is the physiology different? Well it turns out it's these neuromodulators, just like the neuromodulators in that little ____ ganglion in the crabs. So here's a picture of the __________ system. Octopamine is a neuromodulator that seems to play an important role in flight and other behaviors. But this is just one of many _______________ that's in the fly's brain. So I really think that, as we learn more, it's going to turn out that the whole fly _____ is just like a _____ version of this stomatogastric ganglion, and that's one of the reasons why it can do so much with so few neurons.

Solution

  1. lessons
  2. large
  3. flies
  4. bottom
  5. flight
  6. love
  7. start
  8. controlling
  9. show
  10. neuromodulators
  11. rockefeller
  12. tiny
  13. octopamine
  14. brain
  15. visual
  16. neurons
  17. quiescent
  18. stripe
  19. gaby
  20. green
  21. arenas

Original Text

Is there any evidence that flies do this? Well, for many years in my laboratory and other laboratories around the world, we've been studying fly behaviors in little flight simulators. You can tether a fly to a little stick. You can measure the aerodynamic forces it's creating. You can let the fly play a little video game by letting it fly around in a visual display. So let me show you a little tiny sequence of this. Here's a fly and a large infrared view of the fly in the flight simulator, and this is a game the flies love to play. You allow them to steer towards the little stripe, and they'll just steer towards that stripe forever. It's part of their visual guidance system. But very, very recently, it's been possible to modify these sorts of behavioral arenas for physiologies. So this is the preparation that one of my former post-docs, Gaby Maimon, who's now at Rockefeller, developed, and it's basically a flight simulator but under conditions where you actually can stick an electrode in the brain of the fly and record from a genetically identified neuron in the fly's brain. And this is what one of these experiments looks like. It was a sequence taken from another post-doc in the lab, Bettina Schnell. The green trace at the bottom is the membrane potential of a neuron in the fly's brain, and you'll see the fly start to fly, and the fly is actually controlling the rotation of that visual pattern itself by its own wing motion, and you can see this visual interneuron respond to the pattern of wing motion as the fly flies. So for the first time we've actually been able to record from neurons in the fly's brain while the fly is performing sophisticated behaviors such as flight. And one of the lessons we've been learning is that the physiology of cells that we've been studying for many years in quiescent flies is not the same as the physiology of those cells when the flies actually engage in active behaviors like flying and walking and so forth. And why is the physiology different? Well it turns out it's these neuromodulators, just like the neuromodulators in that little tiny ganglion in the crabs. So here's a picture of the octopamine system. Octopamine is a neuromodulator that seems to play an important role in flight and other behaviors. But this is just one of many neuromodulators that's in the fly's brain. So I really think that, as we learn more, it's going to turn out that the whole fly brain is just like a large version of this stomatogastric ganglion, and that's one of the reasons why it can do so much with so few neurons.

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
fruit flies 6
fruit fly 5
trump number 4
aerodynamic forces 4
visual interneuron 3
star trek 3
nervous system 3

Important Words

  1. active
  2. aerodynamic
  3. arenas
  4. basically
  5. behavioral
  6. behaviors
  7. bettina
  8. bottom
  9. brain
  10. cells
  11. conditions
  12. controlling
  13. crabs
  14. creating
  15. developed
  16. display
  17. electrode
  18. engage
  19. evidence
  20. experiments
  21. flies
  22. flight
  23. fly
  24. flying
  25. forces
  26. gaby
  27. game
  28. ganglion
  29. genetically
  30. green
  31. guidance
  32. identified
  33. important
  34. infrared
  35. interneuron
  36. lab
  37. laboratories
  38. laboratory
  39. large
  40. learn
  41. learning
  42. lessons
  43. letting
  44. love
  45. maimon
  46. measure
  47. membrane
  48. modify
  49. motion
  50. neuromodulator
  51. neuromodulators
  52. neuron
  53. neurons
  54. octopamine
  55. part
  56. pattern
  57. performing
  58. physiologies
  59. physiology
  60. picture
  61. play
  62. potential
  63. preparation
  64. quiescent
  65. reasons
  66. record
  67. respond
  68. rockefeller
  69. role
  70. rotation
  71. schnell
  72. sequence
  73. show
  74. simulator
  75. simulators
  76. sophisticated
  77. sorts
  78. start
  79. steer
  80. stick
  81. stomatogastric
  82. stripe
  83. studying
  84. system
  85. tether
  86. time
  87. tiny
  88. trace
  89. turn
  90. turns
  91. version
  92. video
  93. view
  94. visual
  95. walking
  96. wing
  97. world
  98. years