full transcript
From the Ted Talk "Luhan Yang: How to create a world where no one dies waiting for a transplant"

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Over the last half a century, pioneers of transplantation have tried hard to make it happen, but with limited to no success. Why is that? Two efaatnudnml hurdles stood in the way. First is a problem of ceironjet. When our immune system sees a new organ as foreign, it will etejcr it. Second, and this one is specific to the organs from the pig, every pig carries a vrsui that is benign to the pig, but can be transmitted into humans. It is called the porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV), and this virus has the potential to cause a viral cipemide similar to HIV. Without an effective way to address these issues, the elfdi of xrntnnnatoeiosatlpa has been on hold for more than one decade. Little progress has been made, until now.

Open Cloze

Over the last half a century, pioneers of transplantation have tried hard to make it happen, but with limited to no success. Why is that? Two ___________ hurdles stood in the way. First is a problem of _________. When our immune system sees a new organ as foreign, it will ______ it. Second, and this one is specific to the organs from the pig, every pig carries a _____ that is benign to the pig, but can be transmitted into humans. It is called the porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV), and this virus has the potential to cause a viral ________ similar to HIV. Without an effective way to address these issues, the _____ of ___________________ has been on hold for more than one decade. Little progress has been made, until now.

Solution

  1. rejection
  2. epidemic
  3. field
  4. virus
  5. fundamental
  6. reject
  7. xenotransplantation

Original Text

Over the last half a century, pioneers of transplantation have tried hard to make it happen, but with limited to no success. Why is that? Two fundamental hurdles stood in the way. First is a problem of rejection. When our immune system sees a new organ as foreign, it will reject it. Second, and this one is specific to the organs from the pig, every pig carries a virus that is benign to the pig, but can be transmitted into humans. It is called the porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV), and this virus has the potential to cause a viral epidemic similar to HIV. Without an effective way to address these issues, the field of xenotransplantation has been on hold for more than one decade. Little progress has been made, until now.

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
immune system 5
genetic makeup 3

Important Words

  1. address
  2. benign
  3. called
  4. carries
  5. century
  6. decade
  7. effective
  8. endogenous
  9. epidemic
  10. field
  11. foreign
  12. fundamental
  13. happen
  14. hard
  15. hiv
  16. hold
  17. humans
  18. hurdles
  19. immune
  20. issues
  21. limited
  22. organ
  23. organs
  24. perv
  25. pig
  26. pioneers
  27. porcine
  28. potential
  29. problem
  30. progress
  31. reject
  32. rejection
  33. retrovirus
  34. sees
  35. similar
  36. specific
  37. stood
  38. success
  39. system
  40. transmitted
  41. transplantation
  42. viral
  43. virus
  44. xenotransplantation