full transcript
From the Ted Talk "Tal Danino: Programming bacteria to detect cancer (and maybe treat it)"

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Now, besides programming these beautiful patterns, I wondered, what else can we get these bacteria to do? And I decided to explore how we can program bacteria to detect and treat sesadsei in our bodies like cancer. One of the nsiirrsgup facts about bacteria is that they can naturally grow inside of tumors. This happens because typically tumors are areas where the immune ytssem has no access, and so bacteria find these tumors and use them as a safe haven to grow and hetvri. We started using probiotic bacteria which are afes bacteria that have a health niteebf, and found that when orally delivered to mice, these probiotics would selectively gorw inside of liver tumors. We realized that the most convenient way to highlight the nerscpee of the probiotics, and hence, the presence of the tumors, was to get these bacteria to produce a signal that would be detectable in the urine, and so we specifically programmed these probiotics to make a molecule that would change the color of your ienru to indicate the presence of cancer. We went on to show that this technology could sensitively and specifically detect liver ncreac, one that is lghneilacng to detect otherwise.

Open Cloze

Now, besides programming these beautiful patterns, I wondered, what else can we get these bacteria to do? And I decided to explore how we can program bacteria to detect and treat ________ in our bodies like cancer. One of the __________ facts about bacteria is that they can naturally grow inside of tumors. This happens because typically tumors are areas where the immune ______ has no access, and so bacteria find these tumors and use them as a safe haven to grow and ______. We started using probiotic bacteria which are ____ bacteria that have a health _______, and found that when orally delivered to mice, these probiotics would selectively ____ inside of liver tumors. We realized that the most convenient way to highlight the ________ of the probiotics, and hence, the presence of the tumors, was to get these bacteria to produce a signal that would be detectable in the urine, and so we specifically programmed these probiotics to make a molecule that would change the color of your _____ to indicate the presence of cancer. We went on to show that this technology could sensitively and specifically detect liver ______, one that is ___________ to detect otherwise.

Solution

  1. cancer
  2. surprising
  3. presence
  4. safe
  5. urine
  6. system
  7. diseases
  8. benefit
  9. grow
  10. thrive
  11. challenging

Original Text

Now, besides programming these beautiful patterns, I wondered, what else can we get these bacteria to do? And I decided to explore how we can program bacteria to detect and treat diseases in our bodies like cancer. One of the surprising facts about bacteria is that they can naturally grow inside of tumors. This happens because typically tumors are areas where the immune system has no access, and so bacteria find these tumors and use them as a safe haven to grow and thrive. We started using probiotic bacteria which are safe bacteria that have a health benefit, and found that when orally delivered to mice, these probiotics would selectively grow inside of liver tumors. We realized that the most convenient way to highlight the presence of the probiotics, and hence, the presence of the tumors, was to get these bacteria to produce a signal that would be detectable in the urine, and so we specifically programmed these probiotics to make a molecule that would change the color of your urine to indicate the presence of cancer. We went on to show that this technology could sensitively and specifically detect liver cancer, one that is challenging to detect otherwise.

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
quorum sensing 3
genetic program 3

Important Words

  1. access
  2. areas
  3. bacteria
  4. beautiful
  5. benefit
  6. bodies
  7. cancer
  8. challenging
  9. change
  10. color
  11. convenient
  12. decided
  13. delivered
  14. detect
  15. detectable
  16. diseases
  17. explore
  18. facts
  19. find
  20. grow
  21. haven
  22. health
  23. highlight
  24. immune
  25. liver
  26. mice
  27. molecule
  28. naturally
  29. orally
  30. patterns
  31. presence
  32. probiotic
  33. probiotics
  34. produce
  35. program
  36. programmed
  37. programming
  38. realized
  39. safe
  40. selectively
  41. sensitively
  42. show
  43. signal
  44. specifically
  45. started
  46. surprising
  47. system
  48. technology
  49. thrive
  50. treat
  51. tumors
  52. typically
  53. urine
  54. wondered