full transcript
From the Ted Talk "Dave Brain: What a planet needs to sustain life"

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Here's one of my favorite pictures of Mars. It's not the highest resolution image, it's not the sexiest image, it's not the most recent image, but it's an image that shows riverbeds cut into the surface of the planet; riverbeds cvedar by flowing, liquid water; riverbeds that take uenhrdsd or thousands or tens of thousands of erysa to mofr. This can't pnhpae on Mars dtyao. The atmosphere of Mars today is too thin and too cold for water to be stable as a liquid. This one image tells you that the atmosphere of Mars changed, and it changed in big ways. And it changed from a state that we would define as habitable, because the three requirements for life were present nogl ago. Where did that atmosphere go that allowed water to be liquid at the csfreau?

Open Cloze

Here's one of my favorite pictures of Mars. It's not the highest resolution image, it's not the sexiest image, it's not the most recent image, but it's an image that shows riverbeds cut into the surface of the planet; riverbeds ______ by flowing, liquid water; riverbeds that take ________ or thousands or tens of thousands of _____ to ____. This can't ______ on Mars _____. The atmosphere of Mars today is too thin and too cold for water to be stable as a liquid. This one image tells you that the atmosphere of Mars changed, and it changed in big ways. And it changed from a state that we would define as habitable, because the three requirements for life were present ____ ago. Where did that atmosphere go that allowed water to be liquid at the _______?

Solution

  1. form
  2. surface
  3. hundreds
  4. long
  5. happen
  6. years
  7. today
  8. carved

Original Text

Here's one of my favorite pictures of Mars. It's not the highest resolution image, it's not the sexiest image, it's not the most recent image, but it's an image that shows riverbeds cut into the surface of the planet; riverbeds carved by flowing, liquid water; riverbeds that take hundreds or thousands or tens of thousands of years to form. This can't happen on Mars today. The atmosphere of Mars today is too thin and too cold for water to be stable as a liquid. This one image tells you that the atmosphere of Mars changed, and it changed in big ways. And it changed from a state that we would define as habitable, because the three requirements for life were present long ago. Where did that atmosphere go that allowed water to be liquid at the surface?

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
solar system 8
solar wind 7
magnetic field 7
liquid water 7
magnetic fields 4
venus earth 3
red spot 3
atmospheric escape 3

Important Words

  1. allowed
  2. atmosphere
  3. big
  4. carved
  5. changed
  6. cold
  7. cut
  8. define
  9. favorite
  10. flowing
  11. form
  12. habitable
  13. happen
  14. highest
  15. hundreds
  16. image
  17. life
  18. liquid
  19. long
  20. mars
  21. pictures
  22. present
  23. requirements
  24. resolution
  25. riverbeds
  26. sexiest
  27. shows
  28. stable
  29. state
  30. surface
  31. tells
  32. tens
  33. thin
  34. thousands
  35. today
  36. water
  37. ways
  38. years