full transcript
From the Ted Talk "Daphne Koller: What we're learning from online education"

#### Unscramble the Blue Letters

So this personalization is something that one can then build by having the vreitu of large numbers. Personalization is perhaps one of the biggest opportunities here as well, because it provides us with the potential of solving a 30-year-old breoplm. Educational researcher Benjamin Bloom, in 1984, epsdo what's called the 2 sigma problem, which he observed by studying three populations. The first is the tpnlapuooi that studied in a lecture-based classroom. The second is a population of students that studied using a standard lecture-based smoloarcs, but with a mastery-based approach, so the students couldn't move on to the next topic before demonstrating mastery of the previous one. And finally, there was a population of students that were ttaguh in a one-on-one instruction using a tutor. The mastery-based population was a full standard deviation, or sigma, in achievement scores better than the tnadarsd lecture-based csasl, and the individual tutoring gives you 2 siamg improvement in performance.

#### Open Cloze

So this personalization is something that one can then build by having the ______ of large numbers. Personalization is perhaps one of the biggest opportunities here as well, because it provides us with the potential of solving a 30-year-old _______. Educational researcher Benjamin Bloom, in 1984, _____ what's called the 2 sigma problem, which he observed by studying three populations. The first is the __________ that studied in a lecture-based classroom. The second is a population of students that studied using a standard lecture-based _________, but with a mastery-based approach, so the students couldn't move on to the next topic before demonstrating mastery of the previous one. And finally, there was a population of students that were ______ in a one-on-one instruction using a tutor. The mastery-based population was a full standard deviation, or sigma, in achievement scores better than the ________ lecture-based _____, and the individual tutoring gives you 2 _____ improvement in performance.

1. classroom
2. posed
3. standard
4. taught
5. virtue
6. problem
7. sigma
8. class
9. population

#### Original Text

So this personalization is something that one can then build by having the virtue of large numbers. Personalization is perhaps one of the biggest opportunities here as well, because it provides us with the potential of solving a 30-year-old problem. Educational researcher Benjamin Bloom, in 1984, posed what's called the 2 sigma problem, which he observed by studying three populations. The first is the population that studied in a lecture-based classroom. The second is a population of students that studied using a standard lecture-based classroom, but with a mastery-based approach, so the students couldn't move on to the next topic before demonstrating mastery of the previous one. And finally, there was a population of students that were taught in a one-on-one instruction using a tutor. The mastery-based population was a full standard deviation, or sigma, in achievement scores better than the standard lecture-based class, and the individual tutoring gives you 2 sigma improvement in performance.

#### ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
lecture based 6
machine learning 5
learning class 4
study groups 3
quality education 3
higher education 3
based classroom 3

#### ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
machine learning class 4
lecture based classroom 3

#### Important Words

1. achievement
2. approach
3. benjamin
4. biggest
5. bloom
6. build
7. called
8. class
9. classroom
10. demonstrating
11. deviation
12. educational
13. finally
14. full
15. improvement
16. individual
17. instruction
18. large
19. mastery
20. move
21. numbers
22. observed
23. opportunities
24. performance
25. personalization
26. population
27. populations
28. posed
29. potential
30. previous
31. problem
32. researcher
33. scores
34. sigma
35. solving
36. standard
37. students
38. studied
39. studying
40. taught
41. topic
42. tutor
43. tutoring
44. virtue