full transcript

From the Ted Talk by David Baker: 5 challenges we could solve by designing new proteins

Unscramble the Blue Letters

peorints are linear chains of buiidnlg blocks called amino acids. Nature uses an alphabet of 20 amino acids, some of which have names you may have herad of. In this picture, for scale, each bump is an atom. Chemical forces between the amino aidcs cause these long stringy molecules to fold up into unique, three-dimensional structures. The folding persocs, while it looks random, is in fact very pisrece. Each protein folds to its characteristic sphae each time, and the folding process takes just a fraction of a second. And it's the shapes of proteins which enable them to carry out their remarkable biological functions. For example, hemoglobin has a shape in the lungs perfectly sieutd for binding a molecule of oxygen. When hemoglobin moves to your muscle, the shape changes slightly and the oegyxn comes out.

Open Cloze

________ are linear chains of ________ blocks called amino acids. Nature uses an alphabet of 20 amino acids, some of which have names you may have _____ of. In this picture, for scale, each bump is an atom. Chemical forces between the amino _____ cause these long stringy molecules to fold up into unique, three-dimensional structures. The folding _______, while it looks random, is in fact very _______. Each protein folds to its characteristic _____ each time, and the folding process takes just a fraction of a second. And it's the shapes of proteins which enable them to carry out their remarkable biological functions. For example, hemoglobin has a shape in the lungs perfectly ______ for binding a molecule of oxygen. When hemoglobin moves to your muscle, the shape changes slightly and the ______ comes out.

Solution

  1. process
  2. proteins
  3. building
  4. acids
  5. heard
  6. suited
  7. shape
  8. precise
  9. oxygen

Original Text

Proteins are linear chains of building blocks called amino acids. Nature uses an alphabet of 20 amino acids, some of which have names you may have heard of. In this picture, for scale, each bump is an atom. Chemical forces between the amino acids cause these long stringy molecules to fold up into unique, three-dimensional structures. The folding process, while it looks random, is in fact very precise. Each protein folds to its characteristic shape each time, and the folding process takes just a fraction of a second. And it's the shapes of proteins which enable them to carry out their remarkable biological functions. For example, hemoglobin has a shape in the lungs perfectly suited for binding a molecule of oxygen. When hemoglobin moves to your muscle, the shape changes slightly and the oxygen comes out.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
protein design 7
amino acid 6
amino acids 5
immune system 3
acid sequences 3
protein folding 3
synthetic gene 3
total number 3
remarkable biological 2
acid sequence 2
stone age 2
computational protein 2
challenges today 2
designed protein 2
vaccine candidates 2
design revolution 2
bell laboratories 2
immune cells 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
amino acid sequences 3
amino acid sequence 2
protein design revolution 2

Important Words

  1. acids
  2. alphabet
  3. amino
  4. atom
  5. binding
  6. biological
  7. blocks
  8. building
  9. bump
  10. called
  11. carry
  12. chains
  13. characteristic
  14. chemical
  15. enable
  16. fact
  17. fold
  18. folding
  19. folds
  20. forces
  21. fraction
  22. functions
  23. heard
  24. hemoglobin
  25. linear
  26. long
  27. lungs
  28. molecule
  29. molecules
  30. moves
  31. muscle
  32. names
  33. nature
  34. oxygen
  35. perfectly
  36. picture
  37. precise
  38. process
  39. protein
  40. proteins
  41. random
  42. remarkable
  43. scale
  44. shape
  45. shapes
  46. slightly
  47. stringy
  48. structures
  49. suited
  50. takes
  51. time
  52. unique