full transcript

From the Ted Talk by R.A. Mashelkar: Breakthrough designs for ultra-low-cost products

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Let us just take an example. Psoriasis is very ddfreual desaise of the skin. The cost of trematent, 20,000 dollars. 1,000-dollar antibody injections under the skin, by the way, and 20 of them. Time for development — it took around 10 years and 700 million dollars. Let's start in the spirit of more from less and more for more and start putting some targets. For example, we don't want 20,000 dollars; we don't have it. Can we do it [for] 100 dollars? Time for demveelopnt, not 10 years. We are in a hurry. Five yreas. Cost of development — 300 million dollars. Sorry. I can't sepnd more than 10 million dollars. Looks absolutely audacious. Looks absolutely ridiculous.

Open Cloze

Let us just take an example. Psoriasis is very ________ _______ of the skin. The cost of _________, 20,000 dollars. 1,000-dollar antibody injections under the skin, by the way, and 20 of them. Time for development — it took around 10 years and 700 million dollars. Let's start in the spirit of more from less and more for more and start putting some targets. For example, we don't want 20,000 dollars; we don't have it. Can we do it [for] 100 dollars? Time for ___________, not 10 years. We are in a hurry. Five _____. Cost of development — 300 million dollars. Sorry. I can't _____ more than 10 million dollars. Looks absolutely audacious. Looks absolutely ridiculous.

Solution

  1. development
  2. dreadful
  3. treatment
  4. disease
  5. years
  6. spend

Original Text

Let us just take an example. Psoriasis is very dreadful disease of the skin. The cost of treatment, 20,000 dollars. 1,000-dollar antibody injections under the skin, by the way, and 20 of them. Time for development — it took around 10 years and 700 million dollars. Let's start in the spirit of more from less and more for more and start putting some targets. For example, we don't want 20,000 dollars; we don't have it. Can we do it [for] 100 dollars? Time for development, not 10 years. We are in a hurry. Five years. Cost of development — 300 million dollars. Sorry. I can't spend more than 10 million dollars. Looks absolutely audacious. Looks absolutely ridiculous.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
gandhian engineering 4
convex lens 4
million dollars 3
billion people 2
ratan tata 2
ample space 2
artificial foot 2
future generations 2
extreme affordability 2
focal length 2
lens leadership 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
convex lens leadership 2

Important Words

  1. absolutely
  2. antibody
  3. audacious
  4. cost
  5. development
  6. disease
  7. dollars
  8. dreadful
  9. hurry
  10. injections
  11. million
  12. psoriasis
  13. putting
  14. ridiculous
  15. skin
  16. spend
  17. spirit
  18. start
  19. targets
  20. time
  21. treatment
  22. years