full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Ed Boyden: A light switch for neurons

Unscramble the Blue Letters

So what we need to do is take these moclulees and somehow install them in neurons. And because it's a protein, it's encoded for in the DNA of this organism. So all we've got to do is take that DNA, put it into a gene therapy vtceor, like a virus, and put it into neurons. And this was a very pvirucdtoe time in gene therapy, and lots of viruses were coming along, so this turned out to be fairly slmpie. Early in the minnorg one day in the summer of 2004, we gave it a try, and it worked on the first try. You take this DNA and put it into the neuron. The neuron uses its natural protein-making machinery to fabricate these little light-sensitive proteins and install them all over the cell, like putting sloar pnleas on a roof. And the next thing you know, you have a neuron which can be activated with light. So this is very powerful.

Open Cloze

So what we need to do is take these _________ and somehow install them in neurons. And because it's a protein, it's encoded for in the DNA of this organism. So all we've got to do is take that DNA, put it into a gene therapy ______, like a virus, and put it into neurons. And this was a very __________ time in gene therapy, and lots of viruses were coming along, so this turned out to be fairly ______. Early in the _______ one day in the summer of 2004, we gave it a try, and it worked on the first try. You take this DNA and put it into the neuron. The neuron uses its natural protein-making machinery to fabricate these little light-sensitive proteins and install them all over the cell, like putting _____ ______ on a roof. And the next thing you know, you have a neuron which can be activated with light. So this is very powerful.

Solution

  1. molecules
  2. vector
  3. morning
  4. productive
  5. simple
  6. solar
  7. panels

Original Text

So what we need to do is take these molecules and somehow install them in neurons. And because it's a protein, it's encoded for in the DNA of this organism. So all we've got to do is take that DNA, put it into a gene therapy vector, like a virus, and put it into neurons. And this was a very productive time in gene therapy, and lots of viruses were coming along, so this turned out to be fairly simple. Early in the morning one day in the summer of 2004, we gave it a try, and it worked on the first try. You take this DNA and put it into the neuron. The neuron uses its natural protein-making machinery to fabricate these little light-sensitive proteins and install them all over the cell, like putting solar panels on a roof. And the next thing you know, you have a neuron which can be activated with light. So this is very powerful.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
blue light 5
basket cell 2
significant fraction 2
find ways 2
bad news 2
brain disorder 2
treating brain 2
brain disorders 2
electrical stimulators 2
convert light 2
solar cells 2
solar cell 2
gene therapy 2
entire brain 2
adverse events 2
photoreceptor cells 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
treating brain disorders 2

Important Words

  1. activated
  2. cell
  3. coming
  4. day
  5. dna
  6. early
  7. encoded
  8. fabricate
  9. gave
  10. gene
  11. install
  12. light
  13. lots
  14. machinery
  15. molecules
  16. morning
  17. natural
  18. neuron
  19. neurons
  20. organism
  21. panels
  22. powerful
  23. productive
  24. protein
  25. proteins
  26. put
  27. putting
  28. roof
  29. simple
  30. solar
  31. summer
  32. therapy
  33. time
  34. turned
  35. vector
  36. virus
  37. viruses
  38. worked