full transcript
"From the Ted Talk by Ed Boyden: A light switch for neurons"

Unscramble the Blue Letters

So how do we do this? Around 2004, in collaboration with Gerhard Nagel and Karl Deisseroth, this vision came to fuiroitn. There's a certain alga that swims in the wild, and it needs to navigate towards lghit in order to photosynthesize olamtpily. And it senses light with a little eye-spot, which wkros not unlike how our eye works. In its membrane, or its boundary, it contains little proteins that indeed can convert light into electricity. So these molecules are cleald channelrhodopsins. And each of these ponetirs acts just like that solar cell that I told you about. When blue light hits it, it opens up a little hole and allows charged pactrelis to enter the eye-spot, and that allows this eye-spot to have an electrical signal just like a solar cell charging up a battery.

Open Cloze

So how do we do this? Around 2004, in collaboration with Gerhard Nagel and Karl Deisseroth, this vision came to ________. There's a certain alga that swims in the wild, and it needs to navigate towards _____ in order to photosynthesize _________. And it senses light with a little eye-spot, which _____ not unlike how our eye works. In its membrane, or its boundary, it contains little proteins that indeed can convert light into electricity. So these molecules are ______ channelrhodopsins. And each of these ________ acts just like that solar cell that I told you about. When blue light hits it, it opens up a little hole and allows charged _________ to enter the eye-spot, and that allows this eye-spot to have an electrical signal just like a solar cell charging up a battery.

Solution

  1. called
  2. proteins
  3. light
  4. optimally
  5. works
  6. particles
  7. fruition

Original Text

So how do we do this? Around 2004, in collaboration with Gerhard Nagel and Karl Deisseroth, this vision came to fruition. There's a certain alga that swims in the wild, and it needs to navigate towards light in order to photosynthesize optimally. And it senses light with a little eye-spot, which works not unlike how our eye works. In its membrane, or its boundary, it contains little proteins that indeed can convert light into electricity. So these molecules are called channelrhodopsins. And each of these proteins acts just like that solar cell that I told you about. When blue light hits it, it opens up a little hole and allows charged particles to enter the eye-spot, and that allows this eye-spot to have an electrical signal just like a solar cell charging up a battery.

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
blue light 6
pre clinical 3
precise control 3
brain disorders 3
gene therapy 3
eye spot 3
ultra precise 3

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
ultra precise control 3

Important Words

  1. acts
  2. alga
  3. battery
  4. blue
  5. boundary
  6. called
  7. cell
  8. channelrhodopsins
  9. charged
  10. charging
  11. collaboration
  12. convert
  13. deisseroth
  14. electrical
  15. electricity
  16. enter
  17. eye
  18. fruition
  19. gerhard
  20. hits
  21. hole
  22. karl
  23. light
  24. membrane
  25. molecules
  26. nagel
  27. navigate
  28. opens
  29. optimally
  30. order
  31. particles
  32. photosynthesize
  33. proteins
  34. senses
  35. signal
  36. solar
  37. swims
  38. told
  39. vision
  40. wild
  41. works