full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Jack Andraka: A promising test for pancreatic cancer ... from a teenager

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Have you ever experienced a moment in your life that was so painful and confusing, that all you wanted to do was learn as much as you could to make sense of it all? When I was 13, a close family friend who was like an uncle to me passed away from pancreatic cancer. When the disease hit so close to home, I knew I needed to laren more. So I went onlnie to find answers. Using the Internet, I found a viteary of statistics on pancreatic cancer, and what I had found shocked me. Over 85 percent of all pancreatic cancers are diagnosed late, when someone has less than a two percent canhce of survival. Why are we so bad at detecting pancreatic cancer? The raosen? Today's cuernrt "modern" mciniede is a 60-year-old technique. That's older than my dad. (latuhger) But also, it's extremely ensxveipe, cositng 800 dollars per test, and it's grossly inaccurate, missing 30 percent of all pancreatic cancers. Your doctor would have to be ridiculously suspicious that you have the cancer in order to give you this test. lnireang this, I knew there had to be a better way. So, I set up scientific criteria as to what a sensor would have to look like in oredr to effectively dgionase pancreatic cancer. The soensr would have to be: inexpensive, rapid, simple, sensitive, selective, and minimally invasive. Now, there's a reason why this test hasn't been updated in over six decades. And that's because when we're looking for pancreatic cancer, we're looking at your bloodstream, which is already audanbnt in all these tons and tons of protein, and you're looking for this miniscule difference in this tiny amount of protein. Just this one protein. That's next to ipsosibmle. However, undeterred due to my teenage optimism — (Laughter) (Applause) I went online to a teenager's two best friends, glgooe and Wikipedia. I got everything for my hwroeomk from those two sources. (Laughter) And what I had found was an article that listed a database of over 8,000 different proteins that are found when you have pancreatic cancer. So, I decided to go and make it my new mission to go through all these proteins, and see which ones could serve as a bio-marker for pancreatic cancer. And to make it a bit simpler for myself, I decided to map out scientific crretiia, and here it is. Essentially, first, the protein would have to be found in all pancreatic cancers, at high levels in the bloodstream, in the earliest stages, but also only in cancer. And so I'm just plugging and chugging through this gargantuan task, and finally, on the 4,000th try, when I'm close to losing my sanity, I find the protein. And the name of the protein I'd located was called msheiltoen, and it's just your orinrady, run-of-the-mill type protein, unless, of course, you have pancreatic, ovarian or lung cancer, in which case it's found at these very high levels in your botesdoarlm. But also, the key is that it's found in the earliest stages of the disease, when someone has close to 100 percent chance of survival. So now that I'd found a reliable protein I could detect, I then shifted my focus to actually detecting that protein, and thus, pancreatic cancer. Now, my breakthrough came in a very unlikely pacle, possibly the most unlikely place for innovation — my high soohcl biology class, the absolute slefitr of innovation. (Laughter) (Applause) And I had snuck in this arcltie on these things called carbon nanotubes, and that's just a long, thin pipe of carbon that's an atom thick, and one 50,000th the deatimer of your hair. And despite their extremely small sizes, they have these incredible properties. They're kind of like the superheroes of material science. And while I was sneakily reading this article under my desk in my biology class, we were sopeupsd to be paying attention to these other kind of cool molecules, called antibodies. And these are pttery cool because they only react with one specific protein, but they're not nearly as interesting as carbon nanotubes. And so then, I was sitting in clsas, and suddenly it hit me: I could combine what I was redniag about, carobn nanotubes, with what I was supposed to be thinking about, antibodies. Essentially, I could weave a bunch of these antibodies into a network of carbon ntnoabues, such that you have a nwtorek that only reacts with one protein, but also, due to the properties of these nanotubes, it will cgnahe its electrical ptreproeis, based on the amount of poertin present. However, there's a catch. These networks of carbon nanotubes are extremely flimsy. And since they're so delicate, they need to be supported. So that's why I chose to use paper. maikng a cancer sensor out of paper is about as simple as making chcootlae chip cookies, which I love. (Laughs) You satrt with some water, pour in some nanotubes, add antibodies, mix it up, take some paper, dip it, dry it, and you can detect cancer. (Applause) Then, suddenly, a thought occurred that kind of put a blemish on my amazing plan here. I can't really do cancer reraecsh on my kitchen countertop. My mom wouldn't really like that. So instead, I decided to go for a lab. So I typed up a budget, a mtelraais list, a timeline, and a puecorrde, and I emailed it to 200 different poofssrers at Johns Hopkins University and the National Institutes of Health — eisasltlney, anyone that had anything to do with pancreatic cancer. I sat back waiting for these positive emails to be pouring in, saying, "You're a genius! You're going to save us all!" And — (Laughter) Then reality took hold, and over the course of a month, I got 199 rejections out of those 200 emails. One professor even went through my etrine procedure, painstakingly — I'm not really sure where he got all this time — and he went through and said why each and every step was like the worst mistake I could ever make. Clearly, the professors did not have as high of an opinion of my work as I did. However, there is a silver lining. One professor said, "Maybe I might be able to help you, kid." So, I went in that direction. (Laughter) As you can never say no to a kid. And so then, three months later, I finally nailed down a harsh deadline with this guy, and I get into his lab, I get all excited, and then I sit down, I start opening my mouth and tiknlag, and five seconds later, he calls in another Ph.D. Ph.D.s just flock into this little room, and they're just firing these questions at me, and by the end, I kind of felt like I was in a clown car. There were 20 Ph.D.s, plus me and the professor crammed into this tiny oicffe space, with them firing these rapid-fire qsuitoens at me, trying to sink my procedure. How unlikely is that? I mean, pshhh. (Laughter) However, subjecting myself to that interrogation — I anseewrd all their questions, and I geesusd on quite a few but I got them right — and I finally landed the lab space I needed. But it was shortly afterwards that I discovered my once brilliant procedure had something like a million holes in it, and over the course of seven months, I painstakingly fellid each and every one of those holes. The result? One small paper sensor that costs three cents and takes five minutes to run. This makes it 168 tmies faster, over 26,000 times less expensive, and over 400 times more sensitive than our current standard for pancreatic cancer detection. (aspalupe) One of the best prats of the sensor, though, is that it has close to 100 percent auarcccy, and can detect the cancer in the earliest stages, when someone has close to 100 percent chance of survival. And so in the next two to five yreas, this sensor could potentially lift the pancreatic cancer sirvuval rates from a diasml 5.5 percent to csloe to 100 percent, and it would do similar for ovarian and lung cancer. But it wouldn't stop there. By switching out that antibody, you can look at a different protein, thus, a different disease — potentially any disease in the entire world. So that ranges from heart disease, to malaria, HIV, AIDS, as well as other fmors of cancer — anything. And so, hopefully one day, we can all have that one extra uncle, that one mother, that one brother, sister, we can have that one more flamiy mbeemr to love. And that our hearts will be rid of that one disease bedurn that comes from pancreatic, ovarian and lung cencar, and potentially any disease. But through the Internet, anything is possible. Theories can be shared, and you don't have to be a professor with mulplite degrees to have your ideas valued. It's a neutral space, where what you look like, age or gdneer — it doesn't matter. It's just your ideas that count. For me, it's all about looking at the Internet in an entirely new way, to realize that there's so much more to it than just posting duck-face pictures of yourself online. (Laughter) You could be changing the world. So if a 15 year-old who didn't even know what a pancreas was could find a new way to detect pancreatic cancer — just imagine what you could do. Thank you. (Applause)

Open Cloze

Have you ever experienced a moment in your life that was so painful and confusing, that all you wanted to do was learn as much as you could to make sense of it all? When I was 13, a close family friend who was like an uncle to me passed away from pancreatic cancer. When the disease hit so close to home, I knew I needed to _____ more. So I went ______ to find answers. Using the Internet, I found a _______ of statistics on pancreatic cancer, and what I had found shocked me. Over 85 percent of all pancreatic cancers are diagnosed late, when someone has less than a two percent ______ of survival. Why are we so bad at detecting pancreatic cancer? The ______? Today's _______ "modern" ________ is a 60-year-old technique. That's older than my dad. (________) But also, it's extremely _________, _______ 800 dollars per test, and it's grossly inaccurate, missing 30 percent of all pancreatic cancers. Your doctor would have to be ridiculously suspicious that you have the cancer in order to give you this test. ________ this, I knew there had to be a better way. So, I set up scientific criteria as to what a sensor would have to look like in _____ to effectively ________ pancreatic cancer. The ______ would have to be: inexpensive, rapid, simple, sensitive, selective, and minimally invasive. Now, there's a reason why this test hasn't been updated in over six decades. And that's because when we're looking for pancreatic cancer, we're looking at your bloodstream, which is already ________ in all these tons and tons of protein, and you're looking for this miniscule difference in this tiny amount of protein. Just this one protein. That's next to __________. However, undeterred due to my teenage optimism — (Laughter) (Applause) I went online to a teenager's two best friends, ______ and Wikipedia. I got everything for my ________ from those two sources. (Laughter) And what I had found was an article that listed a database of over 8,000 different proteins that are found when you have pancreatic cancer. So, I decided to go and make it my new mission to go through all these proteins, and see which ones could serve as a bio-marker for pancreatic cancer. And to make it a bit simpler for myself, I decided to map out scientific ________, and here it is. Essentially, first, the protein would have to be found in all pancreatic cancers, at high levels in the bloodstream, in the earliest stages, but also only in cancer. And so I'm just plugging and chugging through this gargantuan task, and finally, on the 4,000th try, when I'm close to losing my sanity, I find the protein. And the name of the protein I'd located was called __________, and it's just your ________, run-of-the-mill type protein, unless, of course, you have pancreatic, ovarian or lung cancer, in which case it's found at these very high levels in your ___________. But also, the key is that it's found in the earliest stages of the disease, when someone has close to 100 percent chance of survival. So now that I'd found a reliable protein I could detect, I then shifted my focus to actually detecting that protein, and thus, pancreatic cancer. Now, my breakthrough came in a very unlikely _____, possibly the most unlikely place for innovation — my high ______ biology class, the absolute _______ of innovation. (Laughter) (Applause) And I had snuck in this _______ on these things called carbon nanotubes, and that's just a long, thin pipe of carbon that's an atom thick, and one 50,000th the ________ of your hair. And despite their extremely small sizes, they have these incredible properties. They're kind of like the superheroes of material science. And while I was sneakily reading this article under my desk in my biology class, we were ________ to be paying attention to these other kind of cool molecules, called antibodies. And these are ______ cool because they only react with one specific protein, but they're not nearly as interesting as carbon nanotubes. And so then, I was sitting in _____, and suddenly it hit me: I could combine what I was _______ about, ______ nanotubes, with what I was supposed to be thinking about, antibodies. Essentially, I could weave a bunch of these antibodies into a network of carbon _________, such that you have a _______ that only reacts with one protein, but also, due to the properties of these nanotubes, it will ______ its electrical __________, based on the amount of _______ present. However, there's a catch. These networks of carbon nanotubes are extremely flimsy. And since they're so delicate, they need to be supported. So that's why I chose to use paper. ______ a cancer sensor out of paper is about as simple as making _________ chip cookies, which I love. (Laughs) You _____ with some water, pour in some nanotubes, add antibodies, mix it up, take some paper, dip it, dry it, and you can detect cancer. (Applause) Then, suddenly, a thought occurred that kind of put a blemish on my amazing plan here. I can't really do cancer ________ on my kitchen countertop. My mom wouldn't really like that. So instead, I decided to go for a lab. So I typed up a budget, a _________ list, a timeline, and a _________, and I emailed it to 200 different __________ at Johns Hopkins University and the National Institutes of Health — ___________, anyone that had anything to do with pancreatic cancer. I sat back waiting for these positive emails to be pouring in, saying, "You're a genius! You're going to save us all!" And — (Laughter) Then reality took hold, and over the course of a month, I got 199 rejections out of those 200 emails. One professor even went through my ______ procedure, painstakingly — I'm not really sure where he got all this time — and he went through and said why each and every step was like the worst mistake I could ever make. Clearly, the professors did not have as high of an opinion of my work as I did. However, there is a silver lining. One professor said, "Maybe I might be able to help you, kid." So, I went in that direction. (Laughter) As you can never say no to a kid. And so then, three months later, I finally nailed down a harsh deadline with this guy, and I get into his lab, I get all excited, and then I sit down, I start opening my mouth and _______, and five seconds later, he calls in another Ph.D. Ph.D.s just flock into this little room, and they're just firing these questions at me, and by the end, I kind of felt like I was in a clown car. There were 20 Ph.D.s, plus me and the professor crammed into this tiny ______ space, with them firing these rapid-fire _________ at me, trying to sink my procedure. How unlikely is that? I mean, pshhh. (Laughter) However, subjecting myself to that interrogation — I ________ all their questions, and I _______ on quite a few but I got them right — and I finally landed the lab space I needed. But it was shortly afterwards that I discovered my once brilliant procedure had something like a million holes in it, and over the course of seven months, I painstakingly ______ each and every one of those holes. The result? One small paper sensor that costs three cents and takes five minutes to run. This makes it 168 _____ faster, over 26,000 times less expensive, and over 400 times more sensitive than our current standard for pancreatic cancer detection. (________) One of the best _____ of the sensor, though, is that it has close to 100 percent ________, and can detect the cancer in the earliest stages, when someone has close to 100 percent chance of survival. And so in the next two to five _____, this sensor could potentially lift the pancreatic cancer ________ rates from a ______ 5.5 percent to _____ to 100 percent, and it would do similar for ovarian and lung cancer. But it wouldn't stop there. By switching out that antibody, you can look at a different protein, thus, a different disease — potentially any disease in the entire world. So that ranges from heart disease, to malaria, HIV, AIDS, as well as other _____ of cancer — anything. And so, hopefully one day, we can all have that one extra uncle, that one mother, that one brother, sister, we can have that one more ______ ______ to love. And that our hearts will be rid of that one disease ______ that comes from pancreatic, ovarian and lung ______, and potentially any disease. But through the Internet, anything is possible. Theories can be shared, and you don't have to be a professor with ________ degrees to have your ideas valued. It's a neutral space, where what you look like, age or ______ — it doesn't matter. It's just your ideas that count. For me, it's all about looking at the Internet in an entirely new way, to realize that there's so much more to it than just posting duck-face pictures of yourself online. (Laughter) You could be changing the world. So if a 15 year-old who didn't even know what a pancreas was could find a new way to detect pancreatic cancer — just imagine what you could do. Thank you. (Applause)

Solution

  1. start
  2. laughter
  3. criteria
  4. applause
  5. materials
  6. member
  7. order
  8. questions
  9. mesothelin
  10. protein
  11. diagnose
  12. accuracy
  13. homework
  14. cancer
  15. ordinary
  16. expensive
  17. medicine
  18. variety
  19. professors
  20. multiple
  21. family
  22. carbon
  23. bloodstream
  24. diameter
  25. making
  26. times
  27. current
  28. school
  29. forms
  30. network
  31. place
  32. essentially
  33. procedure
  34. properties
  35. years
  36. change
  37. stifler
  38. google
  39. answered
  40. close
  41. filled
  42. abundant
  43. entire
  44. learn
  45. gender
  46. sensor
  47. learning
  48. talking
  49. class
  50. impossible
  51. guessed
  52. chocolate
  53. nanotubes
  54. burden
  55. costing
  56. research
  57. supposed
  58. office
  59. pretty
  60. parts
  61. online
  62. reading
  63. survival
  64. dismal
  65. reason
  66. chance
  67. article

Original Text

Have you ever experienced a moment in your life that was so painful and confusing, that all you wanted to do was learn as much as you could to make sense of it all? When I was 13, a close family friend who was like an uncle to me passed away from pancreatic cancer. When the disease hit so close to home, I knew I needed to learn more. So I went online to find answers. Using the Internet, I found a variety of statistics on pancreatic cancer, and what I had found shocked me. Over 85 percent of all pancreatic cancers are diagnosed late, when someone has less than a two percent chance of survival. Why are we so bad at detecting pancreatic cancer? The reason? Today's current "modern" medicine is a 60-year-old technique. That's older than my dad. (Laughter) But also, it's extremely expensive, costing 800 dollars per test, and it's grossly inaccurate, missing 30 percent of all pancreatic cancers. Your doctor would have to be ridiculously suspicious that you have the cancer in order to give you this test. Learning this, I knew there had to be a better way. So, I set up scientific criteria as to what a sensor would have to look like in order to effectively diagnose pancreatic cancer. The sensor would have to be: inexpensive, rapid, simple, sensitive, selective, and minimally invasive. Now, there's a reason why this test hasn't been updated in over six decades. And that's because when we're looking for pancreatic cancer, we're looking at your bloodstream, which is already abundant in all these tons and tons of protein, and you're looking for this miniscule difference in this tiny amount of protein. Just this one protein. That's next to impossible. However, undeterred due to my teenage optimism — (Laughter) (Applause) I went online to a teenager's two best friends, Google and Wikipedia. I got everything for my homework from those two sources. (Laughter) And what I had found was an article that listed a database of over 8,000 different proteins that are found when you have pancreatic cancer. So, I decided to go and make it my new mission to go through all these proteins, and see which ones could serve as a bio-marker for pancreatic cancer. And to make it a bit simpler for myself, I decided to map out scientific criteria, and here it is. Essentially, first, the protein would have to be found in all pancreatic cancers, at high levels in the bloodstream, in the earliest stages, but also only in cancer. And so I'm just plugging and chugging through this gargantuan task, and finally, on the 4,000th try, when I'm close to losing my sanity, I find the protein. And the name of the protein I'd located was called mesothelin, and it's just your ordinary, run-of-the-mill type protein, unless, of course, you have pancreatic, ovarian or lung cancer, in which case it's found at these very high levels in your bloodstream. But also, the key is that it's found in the earliest stages of the disease, when someone has close to 100 percent chance of survival. So now that I'd found a reliable protein I could detect, I then shifted my focus to actually detecting that protein, and thus, pancreatic cancer. Now, my breakthrough came in a very unlikely place, possibly the most unlikely place for innovation — my high school biology class, the absolute stifler of innovation. (Laughter) (Applause) And I had snuck in this article on these things called carbon nanotubes, and that's just a long, thin pipe of carbon that's an atom thick, and one 50,000th the diameter of your hair. And despite their extremely small sizes, they have these incredible properties. They're kind of like the superheroes of material science. And while I was sneakily reading this article under my desk in my biology class, we were supposed to be paying attention to these other kind of cool molecules, called antibodies. And these are pretty cool because they only react with one specific protein, but they're not nearly as interesting as carbon nanotubes. And so then, I was sitting in class, and suddenly it hit me: I could combine what I was reading about, carbon nanotubes, with what I was supposed to be thinking about, antibodies. Essentially, I could weave a bunch of these antibodies into a network of carbon nanotubes, such that you have a network that only reacts with one protein, but also, due to the properties of these nanotubes, it will change its electrical properties, based on the amount of protein present. However, there's a catch. These networks of carbon nanotubes are extremely flimsy. And since they're so delicate, they need to be supported. So that's why I chose to use paper. Making a cancer sensor out of paper is about as simple as making chocolate chip cookies, which I love. (Laughs) You start with some water, pour in some nanotubes, add antibodies, mix it up, take some paper, dip it, dry it, and you can detect cancer. (Applause) Then, suddenly, a thought occurred that kind of put a blemish on my amazing plan here. I can't really do cancer research on my kitchen countertop. My mom wouldn't really like that. So instead, I decided to go for a lab. So I typed up a budget, a materials list, a timeline, and a procedure, and I emailed it to 200 different professors at Johns Hopkins University and the National Institutes of Health — essentially, anyone that had anything to do with pancreatic cancer. I sat back waiting for these positive emails to be pouring in, saying, "You're a genius! You're going to save us all!" And — (Laughter) Then reality took hold, and over the course of a month, I got 199 rejections out of those 200 emails. One professor even went through my entire procedure, painstakingly — I'm not really sure where he got all this time — and he went through and said why each and every step was like the worst mistake I could ever make. Clearly, the professors did not have as high of an opinion of my work as I did. However, there is a silver lining. One professor said, "Maybe I might be able to help you, kid." So, I went in that direction. (Laughter) As you can never say no to a kid. And so then, three months later, I finally nailed down a harsh deadline with this guy, and I get into his lab, I get all excited, and then I sit down, I start opening my mouth and talking, and five seconds later, he calls in another Ph.D. Ph.D.s just flock into this little room, and they're just firing these questions at me, and by the end, I kind of felt like I was in a clown car. There were 20 Ph.D.s, plus me and the professor crammed into this tiny office space, with them firing these rapid-fire questions at me, trying to sink my procedure. How unlikely is that? I mean, pshhh. (Laughter) However, subjecting myself to that interrogation — I answered all their questions, and I guessed on quite a few but I got them right — and I finally landed the lab space I needed. But it was shortly afterwards that I discovered my once brilliant procedure had something like a million holes in it, and over the course of seven months, I painstakingly filled each and every one of those holes. The result? One small paper sensor that costs three cents and takes five minutes to run. This makes it 168 times faster, over 26,000 times less expensive, and over 400 times more sensitive than our current standard for pancreatic cancer detection. (Applause) One of the best parts of the sensor, though, is that it has close to 100 percent accuracy, and can detect the cancer in the earliest stages, when someone has close to 100 percent chance of survival. And so in the next two to five years, this sensor could potentially lift the pancreatic cancer survival rates from a dismal 5.5 percent to close to 100 percent, and it would do similar for ovarian and lung cancer. But it wouldn't stop there. By switching out that antibody, you can look at a different protein, thus, a different disease — potentially any disease in the entire world. So that ranges from heart disease, to malaria, HIV, AIDS, as well as other forms of cancer — anything. And so, hopefully one day, we can all have that one extra uncle, that one mother, that one brother, sister, we can have that one more family member to love. And that our hearts will be rid of that one disease burden that comes from pancreatic, ovarian and lung cancer, and potentially any disease. But through the Internet, anything is possible. Theories can be shared, and you don't have to be a professor with multiple degrees to have your ideas valued. It's a neutral space, where what you look like, age or gender — it doesn't matter. It's just your ideas that count. For me, it's all about looking at the Internet in an entirely new way, to realize that there's so much more to it than just posting duck-face pictures of yourself online. (Laughter) You could be changing the world. So if a 15 year-old who didn't even know what a pancreas was could find a new way to detect pancreatic cancer — just imagine what you could do. Thank you. (Applause)

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
pancreatic cancer 9
percent chance 3
pancreatic cancers 2
high levels 2
carbon nanotubes 2

Important Words

  1. absolute
  2. abundant
  3. accuracy
  4. add
  5. age
  6. aids
  7. amazing
  8. amount
  9. answered
  10. answers
  11. antibodies
  12. antibody
  13. applause
  14. article
  15. atom
  16. attention
  17. bad
  18. based
  19. biology
  20. bit
  21. blemish
  22. bloodstream
  23. breakthrough
  24. brilliant
  25. brother
  26. budget
  27. bunch
  28. burden
  29. called
  30. calls
  31. cancer
  32. cancers
  33. car
  34. carbon
  35. case
  36. catch
  37. cents
  38. chance
  39. change
  40. changing
  41. chip
  42. chocolate
  43. chose
  44. chugging
  45. class
  46. close
  47. clown
  48. combine
  49. confusing
  50. cookies
  51. cool
  52. costing
  53. costs
  54. count
  55. countertop
  56. crammed
  57. criteria
  58. current
  59. dad
  60. database
  61. day
  62. deadline
  63. decades
  64. decided
  65. degrees
  66. delicate
  67. desk
  68. detect
  69. detecting
  70. detection
  71. diagnose
  72. diagnosed
  73. diameter
  74. difference
  75. dip
  76. direction
  77. discovered
  78. disease
  79. dismal
  80. doctor
  81. dollars
  82. dry
  83. due
  84. earliest
  85. effectively
  86. electrical
  87. emailed
  88. emails
  89. entire
  90. essentially
  91. excited
  92. expensive
  93. experienced
  94. extra
  95. extremely
  96. family
  97. faster
  98. felt
  99. filled
  100. finally
  101. find
  102. firing
  103. flimsy
  104. flock
  105. focus
  106. forms
  107. friend
  108. friends
  109. gargantuan
  110. gender
  111. give
  112. google
  113. grossly
  114. guessed
  115. guy
  116. hair
  117. harsh
  118. health
  119. heart
  120. hearts
  121. high
  122. hit
  123. hiv
  124. hold
  125. holes
  126. home
  127. homework
  128. hopkins
  129. ideas
  130. imagine
  131. impossible
  132. inaccurate
  133. incredible
  134. inexpensive
  135. innovation
  136. institutes
  137. interesting
  138. internet
  139. interrogation
  140. invasive
  141. johns
  142. key
  143. kid
  144. kind
  145. kitchen
  146. knew
  147. lab
  148. landed
  149. late
  150. laughs
  151. laughter
  152. learn
  153. learning
  154. levels
  155. life
  156. lift
  157. lining
  158. list
  159. listed
  160. located
  161. long
  162. losing
  163. love
  164. lung
  165. making
  166. malaria
  167. map
  168. material
  169. materials
  170. matter
  171. medicine
  172. member
  173. mesothelin
  174. million
  175. minimally
  176. miniscule
  177. minutes
  178. missing
  179. mission
  180. mistake
  181. mix
  182. molecules
  183. mom
  184. moment
  185. month
  186. months
  187. mother
  188. mouth
  189. multiple
  190. nailed
  191. nanotubes
  192. national
  193. needed
  194. network
  195. networks
  196. neutral
  197. occurred
  198. office
  199. older
  200. online
  201. opening
  202. opinion
  203. optimism
  204. order
  205. ordinary
  206. ovarian
  207. painful
  208. painstakingly
  209. pancreas
  210. pancreatic
  211. paper
  212. parts
  213. passed
  214. paying
  215. percent
  216. ph
  217. pictures
  218. pipe
  219. place
  220. plan
  221. plugging
  222. positive
  223. possibly
  224. posting
  225. potentially
  226. pour
  227. pouring
  228. present
  229. pretty
  230. procedure
  231. professor
  232. professors
  233. properties
  234. protein
  235. proteins
  236. pshhh
  237. put
  238. questions
  239. ranges
  240. rapid
  241. rates
  242. react
  243. reacts
  244. reading
  245. reality
  246. realize
  247. reason
  248. rejections
  249. reliable
  250. research
  251. result
  252. rid
  253. ridiculously
  254. room
  255. run
  256. sanity
  257. sat
  258. save
  259. school
  260. science
  261. scientific
  262. seconds
  263. selective
  264. sense
  265. sensitive
  266. sensor
  267. serve
  268. set
  269. shared
  270. shifted
  271. shocked
  272. shortly
  273. silver
  274. similar
  275. simple
  276. simpler
  277. sink
  278. sister
  279. sit
  280. sitting
  281. sizes
  282. small
  283. sneakily
  284. snuck
  285. sources
  286. space
  287. specific
  288. stages
  289. standard
  290. start
  291. statistics
  292. step
  293. stifler
  294. stop
  295. subjecting
  296. suddenly
  297. superheroes
  298. supported
  299. supposed
  300. survival
  301. suspicious
  302. switching
  303. takes
  304. talking
  305. task
  306. technique
  307. teenage
  308. test
  309. theories
  310. thick
  311. thin
  312. thinking
  313. thought
  314. time
  315. timeline
  316. times
  317. tiny
  318. tons
  319. type
  320. typed
  321. uncle
  322. undeterred
  323. university
  324. updated
  325. valued
  326. variety
  327. waiting
  328. wanted
  329. water
  330. weave
  331. wikipedia
  332. work
  333. world
  334. worst
  335. years