full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Nina Fedoroff: A secret weapon against Zika and other mosquito-borne diseases

Unscramble the Blue Letters

So where did it come from, and how did it get here? And it is here. Like many of our viruses, it came out of Africa, specifically the Zika forest in Uganda. Researchers at the nearby Yellow Fever Research Institute identified an unknown vruis in a monkey in the Zika frseot which is how it got its name. The first human ceass of Zika fever surfaced a few yreas later in Uganda-Tanzania. The virus then spread through West Africa and east through eirtaqauol Asia — Pakistan, India, Malaysia, Indonesia. But it was still mostly in monkeys and, of course, mosquitoes. In fact in the 60 years between the time it was first identified in 1947 and 2007 there were only 13 reported cases of human Zika fever. And then something extraordinary happened on the tiny Micronesian Yap ilsndas. There was an outbreak that afeftecd fully 75 percent of the population. How did it get there? By air. Today we have two boililn coaiemcrml airline passengers. An incfeted passenger can board a plane, fly hlwaafy around the world before developing symptoms — if they dleoevp symptoms at all. Then when they land, the local mosquitoes begin to bite them and spread the fever. Zika fever then next surfaced in 2013 in French Polynesia. By December of that year, it was being transmitted locally by the mosquitoes. That led to an explosive outbreak in which almost 30,000 people were affected. From there it radiated around the Pacific. There were outbreaks in the Cook Islands, in New celanidoa, in Vanuatu, in the Solomon Islands and almost all the way around to the coast of South America and Easter ilsand. And then, in early 2015, there was an upsurge of cases of a dengue-like syndrome in the city of ntaal in northeastern Brazil. The virus wasn't dengue, it was Zika, and it spread rapidly — rfiece down the casot, a big metropolitan center, soon became the epicenter. Well polpee have speculated that it was 2014 World Cup soccer fans that brought the virus into the country. But others have speculated that perhaps it was Pacific idrnasels participating in cahnmoshpiip cnaoe races that were held in Rio that year that brought it in.

Open Cloze

So where did it come from, and how did it get here? And it is here. Like many of our viruses, it came out of Africa, specifically the Zika forest in Uganda. Researchers at the nearby Yellow Fever Research Institute identified an unknown _____ in a monkey in the Zika ______ which is how it got its name. The first human _____ of Zika fever surfaced a few _____ later in Uganda-Tanzania. The virus then spread through West Africa and east through __________ Asia — Pakistan, India, Malaysia, Indonesia. But it was still mostly in monkeys and, of course, mosquitoes. In fact in the 60 years between the time it was first identified in 1947 and 2007 there were only 13 reported cases of human Zika fever. And then something extraordinary happened on the tiny Micronesian Yap _______. There was an outbreak that ________ fully 75 percent of the population. How did it get there? By air. Today we have two _______ __________ airline passengers. An ________ passenger can board a plane, fly _______ around the world before developing symptoms — if they _______ symptoms at all. Then when they land, the local mosquitoes begin to bite them and spread the fever. Zika fever then next surfaced in 2013 in French Polynesia. By December of that year, it was being transmitted locally by the mosquitoes. That led to an explosive outbreak in which almost 30,000 people were affected. From there it radiated around the Pacific. There were outbreaks in the Cook Islands, in New _________, in Vanuatu, in the Solomon Islands and almost all the way around to the coast of South America and Easter ______. And then, in early 2015, there was an upsurge of cases of a dengue-like syndrome in the city of _____ in northeastern Brazil. The virus wasn't dengue, it was Zika, and it spread rapidly — ______ down the _____, a big metropolitan center, soon became the epicenter. Well ______ have speculated that it was 2014 World Cup soccer fans that brought the virus into the country. But others have speculated that perhaps it was Pacific _________ participating in ____________ _____ races that were held in Rio that year that brought it in.

Solution

  1. develop
  2. affected
  3. natal
  4. forest
  5. people
  6. virus
  7. canoe
  8. billion
  9. commercial
  10. islanders
  11. years
  12. islands
  13. caledonia
  14. cases
  15. championship
  16. equatorial
  17. halfway
  18. infected
  19. island
  20. coast
  21. recife

Original Text

So where did it come from, and how did it get here? And it is here. Like many of our viruses, it came out of Africa, specifically the Zika forest in Uganda. Researchers at the nearby Yellow Fever Research Institute identified an unknown virus in a monkey in the Zika forest which is how it got its name. The first human cases of Zika fever surfaced a few years later in Uganda-Tanzania. The virus then spread through West Africa and east through equatorial Asia — Pakistan, India, Malaysia, Indonesia. But it was still mostly in monkeys and, of course, mosquitoes. In fact in the 60 years between the time it was first identified in 1947 and 2007 there were only 13 reported cases of human Zika fever. And then something extraordinary happened on the tiny Micronesian Yap islands. There was an outbreak that affected fully 75 percent of the population. How did it get there? By air. Today we have two billion commercial airline passengers. An infected passenger can board a plane, fly halfway around the world before developing symptoms — if they develop symptoms at all. Then when they land, the local mosquitoes begin to bite them and spread the fever. Zika fever then next surfaced in 2013 in French Polynesia. By December of that year, it was being transmitted locally by the mosquitoes. That led to an explosive outbreak in which almost 30,000 people were affected. From there it radiated around the Pacific. There were outbreaks in the Cook Islands, in New Caledonia, in Vanuatu, in the Solomon Islands and almost all the way around to the coast of South America and Easter Island. And then, in early 2015, there was an upsurge of cases of a dengue-like syndrome in the city of Natal in northeastern Brazil. The virus wasn't dengue, it was Zika, and it spread rapidly — Recife down the coast, a big metropolitan center, soon became the epicenter. Well people have speculated that it was 2014 World Cup soccer fans that brought the virus into the country. But others have speculated that perhaps it was Pacific Islanders participating in championship canoe races that were held in Rio that year that brought it in.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
genetically modified 6
zika fever 4
northeastern brazil 2
zika forest 2
yellow fever 2
transmitted locally 2
insect repellent 2
toxic chemicals 2
insect pest 2
biological control 2

Important Words

  1. affected
  2. africa
  3. air
  4. airline
  5. america
  6. asia
  7. big
  8. billion
  9. bite
  10. board
  11. brazil
  12. brought
  13. caledonia
  14. canoe
  15. cases
  16. center
  17. championship
  18. city
  19. coast
  20. commercial
  21. cook
  22. country
  23. cup
  24. december
  25. dengue
  26. develop
  27. developing
  28. early
  29. east
  30. easter
  31. epicenter
  32. equatorial
  33. explosive
  34. extraordinary
  35. fact
  36. fans
  37. fever
  38. fly
  39. forest
  40. french
  41. fully
  42. halfway
  43. happened
  44. held
  45. human
  46. identified
  47. india
  48. indonesia
  49. infected
  50. institute
  51. island
  52. islanders
  53. islands
  54. land
  55. led
  56. local
  57. locally
  58. malaysia
  59. metropolitan
  60. micronesian
  61. monkey
  62. monkeys
  63. mosquitoes
  64. natal
  65. nearby
  66. northeastern
  67. outbreak
  68. outbreaks
  69. pacific
  70. pakistan
  71. participating
  72. passenger
  73. passengers
  74. people
  75. percent
  76. plane
  77. polynesia
  78. population
  79. races
  80. radiated
  81. rapidly
  82. recife
  83. reported
  84. research
  85. researchers
  86. rio
  87. soccer
  88. solomon
  89. south
  90. specifically
  91. speculated
  92. spread
  93. surfaced
  94. symptoms
  95. syndrome
  96. time
  97. tiny
  98. today
  99. transmitted
  100. uganda
  101. unknown
  102. upsurge
  103. vanuatu
  104. virus
  105. viruses
  106. west
  107. world
  108. yap
  109. year
  110. years
  111. yellow
  112. zika