full transcript
"From the Ted Talk by Jimmy Lin: A simple new blood test that can catch cancer early"

Unscramble the Blue Letters

We desperately need better detection mechanisms for cancers. The cruernt best ways to screen ccaner fall into one of three categories. First is medical procedures, which is like csoncpolooy for colon cancer. Second is potrien biomarkers, like PSA for poatrste cancer. Or third, imaging techniques, such as mammography for breast cancer. Medical procedures are the gold standard; however, they are highly invasive and require a large infrastructure to implement. Protein markers, while effective in some populations, are not very specific in some circumstances, resulting in high numbers of fasle positives, which then results in unnecessary work-ups and uaecnsesrny perodecurs. Imaging methods, while useful in some populations, espxoe patients to harmful radiation. In addition, it is not applicable to all patients. For example, mammography has problems in wmeon with dense breasts.

Open Cloze

We desperately need better detection mechanisms for cancers. The _______ best ways to screen ______ fall into one of three categories. First is medical procedures, which is like ___________ for colon cancer. Second is _______ biomarkers, like PSA for ________ cancer. Or third, imaging techniques, such as mammography for breast cancer. Medical procedures are the gold standard; however, they are highly invasive and require a large infrastructure to implement. Protein markers, while effective in some populations, are not very specific in some circumstances, resulting in high numbers of _____ positives, which then results in unnecessary work-ups and ___________ __________. Imaging methods, while useful in some populations, ______ patients to harmful radiation. In addition, it is not applicable to all patients. For example, mammography has problems in _____ with dense breasts.

Solution

  1. cancer
  2. expose
  3. unnecessary
  4. procedures
  5. colonoscopy
  6. prostate
  7. current
  8. women
  9. false
  10. protein

Original Text

We desperately need better detection mechanisms for cancers. The current best ways to screen cancer fall into one of three categories. First is medical procedures, which is like colonoscopy for colon cancer. Second is protein biomarkers, like PSA for prostate cancer. Or third, imaging techniques, such as mammography for breast cancer. Medical procedures are the gold standard; however, they are highly invasive and require a large infrastructure to implement. Protein markers, while effective in some populations, are not very specific in some circumstances, resulting in high numbers of false positives, which then results in unnecessary work-ups and unnecessary procedures. Imaging methods, while useful in some populations, expose patients to harmful radiation. In addition, it is not applicable to all patients. For example, mammography has problems in women with dense breasts.

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
cancer dna 4
medical procedures 3
cancer cells 3
simple blood 3
days earlier 3
blood test 3

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
simple blood test 3

Important Words

  1. addition
  2. applicable
  3. biomarkers
  4. breast
  5. breasts
  6. cancer
  7. cancers
  8. categories
  9. circumstances
  10. colon
  11. colonoscopy
  12. current
  13. dense
  14. desperately
  15. detection
  16. effective
  17. expose
  18. fall
  19. false
  20. gold
  21. harmful
  22. high
  23. highly
  24. imaging
  25. implement
  26. infrastructure
  27. invasive
  28. large
  29. mammography
  30. markers
  31. mechanisms
  32. medical
  33. methods
  34. numbers
  35. patients
  36. populations
  37. positives
  38. problems
  39. procedures
  40. prostate
  41. protein
  42. psa
  43. radiation
  44. require
  45. resulting
  46. results
  47. screen
  48. specific
  49. techniques
  50. unnecessary
  51. ways
  52. women