full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Naomi Klein: Addicted to risk

Unscramble the Blue Letters

I just did something I've never done before. I spent a week at sea on a research vsseel. Now I'm not a scientist, but I was accompanying a remarkable scientific team from the urnetsviiy of South Florida who have been tracking the travels of BP's oil in the Gulf of mcexio. This is the boat we were on, by the way. The scientists I was with were not studying the effect of the oil and dispersants on the big sutff — the birds, the ttlures, the dolphins, the glamorous stuff. They're looking at the really little stuff that gets etean by the slightly less little stuff that eventually gets eaten by the big stuff. And what they're finding is that even trace amounts of oil and dispersants can be hlhgiy toxic to phytoplankton, which is very bad news, because so much life depends on it. So ctronary to what we heard a few months back about how 75 percent of that oil sort of magically disappeared and we didn't have to worry about it, this dssteiar is still unfolding. It's still wrnoikg its way up the food chain. Now this shouldn't come as a surprise to us. rhaecl Carson — the godmother of modern environmentalism — wernad us about this very thing back in 1962. She pointed out that the "control men" — as she called them — who carpet-bombed towns and fields with toxic insecticides like DDT, were only trying to kill the little stuff, the insects, not the brdis. But they forgot this: the fact that birds dine on grubs, that ribons eat lots of worms now sauettard with DDT. And so, robin eggs failed to hatch, songbirds died en masse, towns fell silent. Thus the title "Silent Spring." I've been trying to pinpoint what keeps drawing me back to the Gulf of Mexico, because I'm cnadaain, and I can draw no ancestral ties. And I think what it is is I don't think we have fully come to terms with the meaning of this disaster, with what it meant to winetss a hole ripped in our world, with what it meant to watch the contents of the Earth gush forth on live TV, 24 hours a day, for months. After telling ourselves for so long that our tools and technology can control nature, seddnluy we were face-to-face with our weakness, with our lack of control, as the oil bsrut out of every attempt to contain it — "top hats," "top kills" and, most memorably, the "junk shot" — the bhgirt idea of fiinrg old teirs and golf balls down that hole in the world. But even more sntrikig than the foecuiors power emanating from that well was the recklessness with which that power was unleashed — the carelessness, the lack of planning that characterized the oeiortapn from drilling to clean-up. If there is one thing BP's watery improv act made caelr, it is that, as a culture, we have become far too willing to gamble with things that are precious and irreplaceable, and to do so without a back-up plan, without an exit settagry. And BP was hardly our first experience of this in recent years. Our leaders barrel into wars, telling themselves happy stories about cakewalks and welcome parades. Then, it is years of deadly damgae control, Frankensteins of sieges and surges and counter-insurgencies, and once again, no exit strategy. Our financial wizards routinely fall victim to similar ofeovicdrencne, convincing themselves that the lsetat bubble is a new kind of market — the kind that never goes down. And when it inevitably does, the best and the brightest reach for the financial equivalent of the junk shot — in this case, throwing massive amounts of much-needed public money down a very different kind of hole. As with BP, the hole does get plugged, at least temporarily, but not before exacting a tremendous price. We have to figure out why we keep letting this happen, because we are in the midst of what may be our highest-stakes gamble of all — deciding what to do, or not to do, about climate change. Now as you know, a graet deal of time is spent, in this country and around the world, inside the climate debate, on the question of, "What if the IPC scientists are all wrong?" Now a far more relevant question — as MIT physicist elyven Fox Keller puts it — is, "What if those siitnctess are right?" Given the stakes, the climate crisis clearly calls for us to act based on the precautionary pcinilpre — the theory that holds that when human hatleh and the environment are significantly at risk and when the potential damage is ieiblverrrse, we cannot afford to wait for perfect scientific certainty. Better to err on the side of ctaioun. More overt, the buedrn of proving that a practice is safe should not be placed on the piublc that would be harmed, but rather on the istndruy that stands to profit. But climate picoly in the wealthy world — to the extent that such a thing exists — is not based on precaution, but rather on cost-benefit aynsialsfinndig the course of action that economists believe will have the least icapmt on our GDP. So rather than asking, as precaution would demand, what can we do as quickly as possible to avoid potential catastrophe, we ask bizarre questions like this: "What is the latest possible moment we can wait before we begin seriously lowering emissions? Can we put this off till 2020, 2030, 2050?" Or we ask, "How much hotter can we let the planet get and still sirvvue? Can we go with two degrees, three degrees, or — where we're currently going — four dereges Celsius?" And by the way, the ampousstin that we can safely control the Earth's awesomely complex climate system as if it had a thermostat, making the planet not too hot, not too cold, but just right — sort of Goldilocks style — this is pure fantasy, and it's not coming from the ciltame scientists. It's coming from the economists imposing their mechanistic thinking on the science. The fact is that we smlipy don't know when the warming that we create will be utterly overwhelmed by feedback loops. So once again, why do we take these czray risks with the precious? A range of explanations may be popping into your mind by now, like "greed." This is a popular eoxantpailn, and there's lots of truth to it, because taking big risks, as we all know, pays a lot of money. Another explanation that you often hear for recklessness is hubris. And greed and hubris are intimately intertwined when it comes to rnesssekcles. For instance, if you happen to be a 35-year-old banker taking home 100 times more than a brain surgeon, then you need a nriravtae, you need a story that makes that disparity okay. And you actually don't have a lot of options. You're either an incredibly good scammer, and you're getting away with it — you gamed the system — or you're some kind of boy gunies, the likes of which the world has never seen. Now both of these options — the boy genius and the scmmear — are going to make you vastly overconfident and therefore more ponre to taking even bigger risks in the future. By the way, Tony Hayward, the former CEO of BP, had a plaque on his desk inscribed with this inspirational slogan: "What would you amttpet to do if you knew you could not fail?" Now this is actually a ppuloar plaque, and this is a crowd of overachievers, so I'm betting that some of you have this plaque. Don't feel aemahsd. Putting fear of failure out of your mind can be a very good thing if you're training for a triathlon or preparing to give a TEDTalk, but personally, I think ppoele with the pweor to detonate our economy and ravage our ecology would do better having a purcite of Icarus hanging from the wall, because — maybe not that one in particular — but I want them thinking about the possibility of failure all of the time. So we have gered, we've got overconfidence/hubris, but since we're here at TEDWomen, let's consider one other factor that could be contributing in some small way to societal recklessness. Now I'm not going to belabor this point, but studies do show that, as investors, women are much less prone to taking reckless risks than men, pleicsery because, as we've already heard, women tend not to suffer from overconfidence in the same way that men do. So it tunrs out that being paid less and praised less has its upsides — for society at least. The flipside of this is that constantly being told that you are gifted, chosen and born to rule has distinct societal downsides. And this problem — call it the "perils of privilege" — brings us celsor, I think, to the root of our collective recklessness. Because none of us — at least in the global North — neither men nor wmoen, are fluly exempt from this msasgee. Here's what I'm talking about. Whether we actively believe them or consciously reject them, our culture remains in the grips of certain archetypal stories about our supremacy over others and over nature — the narrative of the newly discovered frontier and the conquering pioneer, the narrative of manifest destiny, the narrative of apocalypse and soivaaltn. And just when you think these stories are fdnaig into hstrioy, and that we've gotten over them, they pop up in the strangest places. For instance, I stumbled across this aeenvsmitredt outside the women's washroom in the Kansas City airport. It's for Motorola's new Rugged cell phone, and yes, it really does say, "Slap meothr Nature in the face." And I'm not just showing it to pick on mootorla — that's just a bonus. I'm showing it because — they're not a sponsor, are they? — because, in its own way, this is a crass viesorn of our founding story. We sapelpd Mother Nature around and won, and we always win, because diimanontg nature is our destiny. But this is not the only fairytale we tell ourselves about nature. There's another one, eqaully important, about how that very same Mother nutare is so nurturing and so resilient that we can never make a dent in her abncdnaue. Let's hear from Tony harywad again. "The Gulf of Mexico is a very big ocean. The amount of oil and dispersants that we are putting into it is tiny in relation to the ttoal weatr volume." In other words, the ocean is big; she can take it. It is this ulndeyring assumption of limitlessness that makes it possible to take the rekscles rsiks that we do. Because this is our real master-narrative: however much we mess up, there will always be more — more water, more land, more untapped resources. A new bubble will replace the old one. A new technology will come along to fix the messes we made with the last one. In a way, that is the srtoy of the stetling of the Americas, the spdseuolpy inexhaustible frontier to which Europeans escaped. And it's also the story of modern capitalism, because it was the wealth from this land that gave birth to our economic system, one that cannot survive without perpetual growth and an unending supply of new frontiers. Now the problem is that the story was always a lie. The Earth always did have litmis. They were just beyond our sthgis. And now we are hitting those limits on multiple fronts. I believe that we know this, yet we find ourselves trapped in a kind of narrative loop. Not only do we continue to tell and retell the same tired stories, but we are now doing so with a frenzy and a fury that, frankly, vreges on camp. How else to explain the cultural spcae occupied by Sarah Palin? Now on the one hand, eorxthnig us to "drill, baby, drill," because God put those resources into the ground in oredr for us to exploit them, and on the other, glorying in the weirnldses of Alaska's untouched beauty on her hit reality TV show. The twin message is as crointfmog as it is mad. Ignore those creeping fears that we have fillnay hit the wall. There are still no limits. There will always be another frontier. So stop worrying and keep sponhpig. Now, would that this were just about Sarah Palin and her reality TV show. In environmental circles, we often hear that, rather than shifting to rawnbeeels, we are continuing with business as usual. This assessment, unfortunately, is far too optimistic. The truth is that we have already exhausted so much of the easily assieclbce fossil fuels that we have already entered a far riskier business era, the era of exmrete energy. So that means dilnlrig for oil in the deepest water, including the icy Arctic seas, where a clean-up may simply be ipsimlbose. It means large-scale hydraulic fracking for gas and massive strip-mining operations for coal, the likes of which we haven't yet seen. And most controversially, it means the tar sands. I'm always surprised by how little people outside of Canada know about the Alberta Tar Sands, which this year are projected to become the number one source of imported oil to the untied States. It's worth taking a moment to understand this practice, because I believe it speaks to recklessness and the path we're on like little else. So this is where the tar sands live, under one of the last magnificent Boreal forests. The oil is not liquid. You can't just drill a hole and pump it out. Tar sand's oil is solid, mixed in with the soil. So to get at it, you first have to get rid of the trees. Then, you rip off the topsoil and get at that oily sand. The process requires a huge amount of water, which is then pumped into massive toxic tailing ponds. That's very bad news for local ineidguons people living downstream who are reporting alarmingly high cnaecr rtaes. Now looking at these images, it's difficult to grasp the scale of this operation, which can already be seen from space and could grow to an area the size of England. I find it helps actually to look at the dump tukcrs that move the earth, the lreagst ever bluit. That's a person down there by the wheel. My ponit is that this is not oil drilling. It's not even mining. It is terrestrial skinning. Vast, vivid landscapes are being gutted, left monochromatic gray. Now I should confess that as [far as] I'm concerned this would be an abitomanion if it emitted not one particle of carbon. But the ttruh is that, on average, turning that gunk into crude oil produces about three times more greenhouse gas pollution than it does to produce cnteonavniol oil in Canada. How else to drscibee this, but as a form of mass iiantsny? Just when we know we need to be learning to live on the surface of our planet, off the power of sun, wind and waves, we are fnlctriaaly digging to get at the drteiist, highest-emitting stuff igbiaalnme. This is where our story of endless growth has taken us, to this black hole at the cenetr of my cnotury — a pclae of such planetary pain that, like the BP gusher, one can only stand to look at it for so long. As Jared Diamond and others have shown us, this is how cavzioliinits commit suicide, by slamming their foot on the accelerator at the exact memont when they should be putitng on the brakes. The polebrm is that our master-narrative has an answer for that too. At the very last minute, we are going to get saved just like in every Hollywood movie, just like in the Rapture. But, of course, our secular religion is technology. Now, you may have noticed more and more headlines like these. The idea behind this form of "geoengineering" as it's called, is that, as the planet heats up, we may be able to sohot sulfates and aluminum particles into the stratosphere to reflect some of the sun's rays back to space, thereby cooling the peanlt. The wackiest plan — and I'm not making this up — would put what is essentially a garden hose 18-and-a-half mleis high into the sky, suspended by boallons, to spew sulfur dioxide. So, solving the problem of pollution with more puilltoon. Think of it as the ultimate junk shot. The serious scientists involved in this research all stress that these techniques are entirely untested. They don't know if they'll work, and they have no idea what kind of tifrriyneg side effects they could unleash. Nevertheless, the mere mention of geoengineering is being greeted in some crciles, particularly media circles, with a rileef tinged with euphoria. An escape hatch has been rcheead. A new frontier has been found. Most importantly, we don't have to change our lifestyles after all. You see, for some people, their savior is a guy in a flowing robe. For other people, it's a guy with a gderan hose. We badly need some new sitoers. We need stories that have different kinds of horees willing to take different kinds of risks — risks that confront recklessness head on, that put the prareanouctiy principle into pctcraie, even if that means through direct action — like hundreds of young people willing to get aetrsred, blocking dirty power plants or fighting mountaintop-removal coal mining. We need stories that rplcaee that linear narrative of endless growth with carcuilr nirteraavs that rinemd us that what goes around comes around. That this is our only home. There is no escape hatch. Call it karma, call it physics, action and reaction, call it precaution — the principle that rimdnes us that life is too precious to be rseikd for any profit. Thank you. (asulappe)

Open Cloze

I just did something I've never done before. I spent a week at sea on a research ______. Now I'm not a scientist, but I was accompanying a remarkable scientific team from the __________ of South Florida who have been tracking the travels of BP's oil in the Gulf of ______. This is the boat we were on, by the way. The scientists I was with were not studying the effect of the oil and dispersants on the big _____ — the birds, the _______, the dolphins, the glamorous stuff. They're looking at the really little stuff that gets _____ by the slightly less little stuff that eventually gets eaten by the big stuff. And what they're finding is that even trace amounts of oil and dispersants can be ______ toxic to phytoplankton, which is very bad news, because so much life depends on it. So ________ to what we heard a few months back about how 75 percent of that oil sort of magically disappeared and we didn't have to worry about it, this ________ is still unfolding. It's still _______ its way up the food chain. Now this shouldn't come as a surprise to us. ______ Carson — the godmother of modern environmentalism — ______ us about this very thing back in 1962. She pointed out that the "control men" — as she called them — who carpet-bombed towns and fields with toxic insecticides like DDT, were only trying to kill the little stuff, the insects, not the _____. But they forgot this: the fact that birds dine on grubs, that ______ eat lots of worms now _________ with DDT. And so, robin eggs failed to hatch, songbirds died en masse, towns fell silent. Thus the title "Silent Spring." I've been trying to pinpoint what keeps drawing me back to the Gulf of Mexico, because I'm ________, and I can draw no ancestral ties. And I think what it is is I don't think we have fully come to terms with the meaning of this disaster, with what it meant to _______ a hole ripped in our world, with what it meant to watch the contents of the Earth gush forth on live TV, 24 hours a day, for months. After telling ourselves for so long that our tools and technology can control nature, ________ we were face-to-face with our weakness, with our lack of control, as the oil _____ out of every attempt to contain it — "top hats," "top kills" and, most memorably, the "junk shot" — the ______ idea of ______ old _____ and golf balls down that hole in the world. But even more ________ than the _________ power emanating from that well was the recklessness with which that power was unleashed — the carelessness, the lack of planning that characterized the _________ from drilling to clean-up. If there is one thing BP's watery improv act made _____, it is that, as a culture, we have become far too willing to gamble with things that are precious and irreplaceable, and to do so without a back-up plan, without an exit ________. And BP was hardly our first experience of this in recent years. Our leaders barrel into wars, telling themselves happy stories about cakewalks and welcome parades. Then, it is years of deadly ______ control, Frankensteins of sieges and surges and counter-insurgencies, and once again, no exit strategy. Our financial wizards routinely fall victim to similar ______________, convincing themselves that the ______ bubble is a new kind of market — the kind that never goes down. And when it inevitably does, the best and the brightest reach for the financial equivalent of the junk shot — in this case, throwing massive amounts of much-needed public money down a very different kind of hole. As with BP, the hole does get plugged, at least temporarily, but not before exacting a tremendous price. We have to figure out why we keep letting this happen, because we are in the midst of what may be our highest-stakes gamble of all — deciding what to do, or not to do, about climate change. Now as you know, a _____ deal of time is spent, in this country and around the world, inside the climate debate, on the question of, "What if the IPC scientists are all wrong?" Now a far more relevant question — as MIT physicist ______ Fox Keller puts it — is, "What if those __________ are right?" Given the stakes, the climate crisis clearly calls for us to act based on the precautionary _________ — the theory that holds that when human ______ and the environment are significantly at risk and when the potential damage is ____________, we cannot afford to wait for perfect scientific certainty. Better to err on the side of _______. More overt, the ______ of proving that a practice is safe should not be placed on the ______ that would be harmed, but rather on the ________ that stands to profit. But climate ______ in the wealthy world — to the extent that such a thing exists — is not based on precaution, but rather on cost-benefit _______________ the course of action that economists believe will have the least ______ on our GDP. So rather than asking, as precaution would demand, what can we do as quickly as possible to avoid potential catastrophe, we ask bizarre questions like this: "What is the latest possible moment we can wait before we begin seriously lowering emissions? Can we put this off till 2020, 2030, 2050?" Or we ask, "How much hotter can we let the planet get and still _______? Can we go with two degrees, three degrees, or — where we're currently going — four _______ Celsius?" And by the way, the __________ that we can safely control the Earth's awesomely complex climate system as if it had a thermostat, making the planet not too hot, not too cold, but just right — sort of Goldilocks style — this is pure fantasy, and it's not coming from the _______ scientists. It's coming from the economists imposing their mechanistic thinking on the science. The fact is that we ______ don't know when the warming that we create will be utterly overwhelmed by feedback loops. So once again, why do we take these _____ risks with the precious? A range of explanations may be popping into your mind by now, like "greed." This is a popular ___________, and there's lots of truth to it, because taking big risks, as we all know, pays a lot of money. Another explanation that you often hear for recklessness is hubris. And greed and hubris are intimately intertwined when it comes to ____________. For instance, if you happen to be a 35-year-old banker taking home 100 times more than a brain surgeon, then you need a _________, you need a story that makes that disparity okay. And you actually don't have a lot of options. You're either an incredibly good scammer, and you're getting away with it — you gamed the system — or you're some kind of boy ______, the likes of which the world has never seen. Now both of these options — the boy genius and the _______ — are going to make you vastly overconfident and therefore more _____ to taking even bigger risks in the future. By the way, Tony Hayward, the former CEO of BP, had a plaque on his desk inscribed with this inspirational slogan: "What would you _______ to do if you knew you could not fail?" Now this is actually a _______ plaque, and this is a crowd of overachievers, so I'm betting that some of you have this plaque. Don't feel _______. Putting fear of failure out of your mind can be a very good thing if you're training for a triathlon or preparing to give a TEDTalk, but personally, I think ______ with the _____ to detonate our economy and ravage our ecology would do better having a _______ of Icarus hanging from the wall, because — maybe not that one in particular — but I want them thinking about the possibility of failure all of the time. So we have _____, we've got overconfidence/hubris, but since we're here at TEDWomen, let's consider one other factor that could be contributing in some small way to societal recklessness. Now I'm not going to belabor this point, but studies do show that, as investors, women are much less prone to taking reckless risks than men, _________ because, as we've already heard, women tend not to suffer from overconfidence in the same way that men do. So it _____ out that being paid less and praised less has its upsides — for society at least. The flipside of this is that constantly being told that you are gifted, chosen and born to rule has distinct societal downsides. And this problem — call it the "perils of privilege" — brings us ______, I think, to the root of our collective recklessness. Because none of us — at least in the global North — neither men nor _____, are _____ exempt from this _______. Here's what I'm talking about. Whether we actively believe them or consciously reject them, our culture remains in the grips of certain archetypal stories about our supremacy over others and over nature — the narrative of the newly discovered frontier and the conquering pioneer, the narrative of manifest destiny, the narrative of apocalypse and _________. And just when you think these stories are ______ into _______, and that we've gotten over them, they pop up in the strangest places. For instance, I stumbled across this _____________ outside the women's washroom in the Kansas City airport. It's for Motorola's new Rugged cell phone, and yes, it really does say, "Slap ______ Nature in the face." And I'm not just showing it to pick on ________ — that's just a bonus. I'm showing it because — they're not a sponsor, are they? — because, in its own way, this is a crass _______ of our founding story. We _______ Mother Nature around and won, and we always win, because __________ nature is our destiny. But this is not the only fairytale we tell ourselves about nature. There's another one, _______ important, about how that very same Mother ______ is so nurturing and so resilient that we can never make a dent in her _________. Let's hear from Tony _______ again. "The Gulf of Mexico is a very big ocean. The amount of oil and dispersants that we are putting into it is tiny in relation to the _____ _____ volume." In other words, the ocean is big; she can take it. It is this __________ assumption of limitlessness that makes it possible to take the ________ _____ that we do. Because this is our real master-narrative: however much we mess up, there will always be more — more water, more land, more untapped resources. A new bubble will replace the old one. A new technology will come along to fix the messes we made with the last one. In a way, that is the _____ of the ________ of the Americas, the __________ inexhaustible frontier to which Europeans escaped. And it's also the story of modern capitalism, because it was the wealth from this land that gave birth to our economic system, one that cannot survive without perpetual growth and an unending supply of new frontiers. Now the problem is that the story was always a lie. The Earth always did have ______. They were just beyond our ______. And now we are hitting those limits on multiple fronts. I believe that we know this, yet we find ourselves trapped in a kind of narrative loop. Not only do we continue to tell and retell the same tired stories, but we are now doing so with a frenzy and a fury that, frankly, ______ on camp. How else to explain the cultural _____ occupied by Sarah Palin? Now on the one hand, _________ us to "drill, baby, drill," because God put those resources into the ground in _____ for us to exploit them, and on the other, glorying in the __________ of Alaska's untouched beauty on her hit reality TV show. The twin message is as __________ as it is mad. Ignore those creeping fears that we have _______ hit the wall. There are still no limits. There will always be another frontier. So stop worrying and keep ________. Now, would that this were just about Sarah Palin and her reality TV show. In environmental circles, we often hear that, rather than shifting to __________, we are continuing with business as usual. This assessment, unfortunately, is far too optimistic. The truth is that we have already exhausted so much of the easily __________ fossil fuels that we have already entered a far riskier business era, the era of _______ energy. So that means ________ for oil in the deepest water, including the icy Arctic seas, where a clean-up may simply be __________. It means large-scale hydraulic fracking for gas and massive strip-mining operations for coal, the likes of which we haven't yet seen. And most controversially, it means the tar sands. I'm always surprised by how little people outside of Canada know about the Alberta Tar Sands, which this year are projected to become the number one source of imported oil to the ______ States. It's worth taking a moment to understand this practice, because I believe it speaks to recklessness and the path we're on like little else. So this is where the tar sands live, under one of the last magnificent Boreal forests. The oil is not liquid. You can't just drill a hole and pump it out. Tar sand's oil is solid, mixed in with the soil. So to get at it, you first have to get rid of the trees. Then, you rip off the topsoil and get at that oily sand. The process requires a huge amount of water, which is then pumped into massive toxic tailing ponds. That's very bad news for local __________ people living downstream who are reporting alarmingly high ______ _____. Now looking at these images, it's difficult to grasp the scale of this operation, which can already be seen from space and could grow to an area the size of England. I find it helps actually to look at the dump ______ that move the earth, the _______ ever _____. That's a person down there by the wheel. My _____ is that this is not oil drilling. It's not even mining. It is terrestrial skinning. Vast, vivid landscapes are being gutted, left monochromatic gray. Now I should confess that as [far as] I'm concerned this would be an ___________ if it emitted not one particle of carbon. But the _____ is that, on average, turning that gunk into crude oil produces about three times more greenhouse gas pollution than it does to produce ____________ oil in Canada. How else to ________ this, but as a form of mass ________? Just when we know we need to be learning to live on the surface of our planet, off the power of sun, wind and waves, we are ___________ digging to get at the ________, highest-emitting stuff __________. This is where our story of endless growth has taken us, to this black hole at the ______ of my _______ — a _____ of such planetary pain that, like the BP gusher, one can only stand to look at it for so long. As Jared Diamond and others have shown us, this is how _____________ commit suicide, by slamming their foot on the accelerator at the exact ______ when they should be _______ on the brakes. The _______ is that our master-narrative has an answer for that too. At the very last minute, we are going to get saved just like in every Hollywood movie, just like in the Rapture. But, of course, our secular religion is technology. Now, you may have noticed more and more headlines like these. The idea behind this form of "geoengineering" as it's called, is that, as the planet heats up, we may be able to _____ sulfates and aluminum particles into the stratosphere to reflect some of the sun's rays back to space, thereby cooling the ______. The wackiest plan — and I'm not making this up — would put what is essentially a garden hose 18-and-a-half _____ high into the sky, suspended by ________, to spew sulfur dioxide. So, solving the problem of pollution with more _________. Think of it as the ultimate junk shot. The serious scientists involved in this research all stress that these techniques are entirely untested. They don't know if they'll work, and they have no idea what kind of __________ side effects they could unleash. Nevertheless, the mere mention of geoengineering is being greeted in some _______, particularly media circles, with a ______ tinged with euphoria. An escape hatch has been _______. A new frontier has been found. Most importantly, we don't have to change our lifestyles after all. You see, for some people, their savior is a guy in a flowing robe. For other people, it's a guy with a ______ hose. We badly need some new _______. We need stories that have different kinds of ______ willing to take different kinds of risks — risks that confront recklessness head on, that put the _____________ principle into ________, even if that means through direct action — like hundreds of young people willing to get ________, blocking dirty power plants or fighting mountaintop-removal coal mining. We need stories that _______ that linear narrative of endless growth with ________ __________ that ______ us that what goes around comes around. That this is our only home. There is no escape hatch. Call it karma, call it physics, action and reaction, call it precaution — the principle that _______ us that life is too precious to be ______ for any profit. Thank you. (________)

Solution

  1. simply
  2. disaster
  3. narratives
  4. terrifying
  5. wilderness
  6. pollution
  7. applause
  8. moment
  9. bright
  10. analysis
  11. reminds
  12. abundance
  13. center
  14. ashamed
  15. women
  16. trucks
  17. university
  18. burden
  19. highly
  20. largest
  21. impossible
  22. built
  23. stories
  24. mexico
  25. practice
  26. assumption
  27. explanation
  28. describe
  29. story
  30. climate
  31. narrative
  32. principle
  33. precautionary
  34. salvation
  35. rachel
  36. truth
  37. planet
  38. irreversible
  39. sights
  40. hayward
  41. civilizations
  42. water
  43. shopping
  44. rates
  45. risks
  46. indigenous
  47. damage
  48. people
  49. arrested
  50. saturated
  51. dirtiest
  52. contrary
  53. clear
  54. latest
  55. overconfidence
  56. attempt
  57. renewables
  58. scientists
  59. turns
  60. replace
  61. drilling
  62. shoot
  63. garden
  64. reached
  65. advertisement
  66. prone
  67. total
  68. suddenly
  69. caution
  70. genius
  71. eaten
  72. survive
  73. strategy
  74. robins
  75. mother
  76. point
  77. comforting
  78. imaginable
  79. circular
  80. putting
  81. popular
  82. history
  83. recklessness
  84. picture
  85. dominating
  86. operation
  87. power
  88. greed
  89. stuff
  90. settling
  91. exhorting
  92. warned
  93. vessel
  94. verges
  95. evelyn
  96. motorola
  97. abomination
  98. precisely
  99. finding
  100. birds
  101. great
  102. united
  103. balloons
  104. policy
  105. message
  106. canadian
  107. version
  108. slapped
  109. working
  110. crazy
  111. extreme
  112. place
  113. health
  114. tires
  115. risked
  116. degrees
  117. supposedly
  118. space
  119. order
  120. fading
  121. public
  122. nature
  123. cancer
  124. miles
  125. burst
  126. reckless
  127. accessible
  128. turtles
  129. equally
  130. remind
  131. industry
  132. problem
  133. conventional
  134. impact
  135. country
  136. frantically
  137. ferocious
  138. striking
  139. finally
  140. heroes
  141. closer
  142. fully
  143. insanity
  144. circles
  145. underlying
  146. limits
  147. witness
  148. scammer
  149. firing
  150. relief

Original Text

I just did something I've never done before. I spent a week at sea on a research vessel. Now I'm not a scientist, but I was accompanying a remarkable scientific team from the University of South Florida who have been tracking the travels of BP's oil in the Gulf of Mexico. This is the boat we were on, by the way. The scientists I was with were not studying the effect of the oil and dispersants on the big stuff — the birds, the turtles, the dolphins, the glamorous stuff. They're looking at the really little stuff that gets eaten by the slightly less little stuff that eventually gets eaten by the big stuff. And what they're finding is that even trace amounts of oil and dispersants can be highly toxic to phytoplankton, which is very bad news, because so much life depends on it. So contrary to what we heard a few months back about how 75 percent of that oil sort of magically disappeared and we didn't have to worry about it, this disaster is still unfolding. It's still working its way up the food chain. Now this shouldn't come as a surprise to us. Rachel Carson — the godmother of modern environmentalism — warned us about this very thing back in 1962. She pointed out that the "control men" — as she called them — who carpet-bombed towns and fields with toxic insecticides like DDT, were only trying to kill the little stuff, the insects, not the birds. But they forgot this: the fact that birds dine on grubs, that robins eat lots of worms now saturated with DDT. And so, robin eggs failed to hatch, songbirds died en masse, towns fell silent. Thus the title "Silent Spring." I've been trying to pinpoint what keeps drawing me back to the Gulf of Mexico, because I'm Canadian, and I can draw no ancestral ties. And I think what it is is I don't think we have fully come to terms with the meaning of this disaster, with what it meant to witness a hole ripped in our world, with what it meant to watch the contents of the Earth gush forth on live TV, 24 hours a day, for months. After telling ourselves for so long that our tools and technology can control nature, suddenly we were face-to-face with our weakness, with our lack of control, as the oil burst out of every attempt to contain it — "top hats," "top kills" and, most memorably, the "junk shot" — the bright idea of firing old tires and golf balls down that hole in the world. But even more striking than the ferocious power emanating from that well was the recklessness with which that power was unleashed — the carelessness, the lack of planning that characterized the operation from drilling to clean-up. If there is one thing BP's watery improv act made clear, it is that, as a culture, we have become far too willing to gamble with things that are precious and irreplaceable, and to do so without a back-up plan, without an exit strategy. And BP was hardly our first experience of this in recent years. Our leaders barrel into wars, telling themselves happy stories about cakewalks and welcome parades. Then, it is years of deadly damage control, Frankensteins of sieges and surges and counter-insurgencies, and once again, no exit strategy. Our financial wizards routinely fall victim to similar overconfidence, convincing themselves that the latest bubble is a new kind of market — the kind that never goes down. And when it inevitably does, the best and the brightest reach for the financial equivalent of the junk shot — in this case, throwing massive amounts of much-needed public money down a very different kind of hole. As with BP, the hole does get plugged, at least temporarily, but not before exacting a tremendous price. We have to figure out why we keep letting this happen, because we are in the midst of what may be our highest-stakes gamble of all — deciding what to do, or not to do, about climate change. Now as you know, a great deal of time is spent, in this country and around the world, inside the climate debate, on the question of, "What if the IPC scientists are all wrong?" Now a far more relevant question — as MIT physicist Evelyn Fox Keller puts it — is, "What if those scientists are right?" Given the stakes, the climate crisis clearly calls for us to act based on the precautionary principle — the theory that holds that when human health and the environment are significantly at risk and when the potential damage is irreversible, we cannot afford to wait for perfect scientific certainty. Better to err on the side of caution. More overt, the burden of proving that a practice is safe should not be placed on the public that would be harmed, but rather on the industry that stands to profit. But climate policy in the wealthy world — to the extent that such a thing exists — is not based on precaution, but rather on cost-benefit analysis — finding the course of action that economists believe will have the least impact on our GDP. So rather than asking, as precaution would demand, what can we do as quickly as possible to avoid potential catastrophe, we ask bizarre questions like this: "What is the latest possible moment we can wait before we begin seriously lowering emissions? Can we put this off till 2020, 2030, 2050?" Or we ask, "How much hotter can we let the planet get and still survive? Can we go with two degrees, three degrees, or — where we're currently going — four degrees Celsius?" And by the way, the assumption that we can safely control the Earth's awesomely complex climate system as if it had a thermostat, making the planet not too hot, not too cold, but just right — sort of Goldilocks style — this is pure fantasy, and it's not coming from the climate scientists. It's coming from the economists imposing their mechanistic thinking on the science. The fact is that we simply don't know when the warming that we create will be utterly overwhelmed by feedback loops. So once again, why do we take these crazy risks with the precious? A range of explanations may be popping into your mind by now, like "greed." This is a popular explanation, and there's lots of truth to it, because taking big risks, as we all know, pays a lot of money. Another explanation that you often hear for recklessness is hubris. And greed and hubris are intimately intertwined when it comes to recklessness. For instance, if you happen to be a 35-year-old banker taking home 100 times more than a brain surgeon, then you need a narrative, you need a story that makes that disparity okay. And you actually don't have a lot of options. You're either an incredibly good scammer, and you're getting away with it — you gamed the system — or you're some kind of boy genius, the likes of which the world has never seen. Now both of these options — the boy genius and the scammer — are going to make you vastly overconfident and therefore more prone to taking even bigger risks in the future. By the way, Tony Hayward, the former CEO of BP, had a plaque on his desk inscribed with this inspirational slogan: "What would you attempt to do if you knew you could not fail?" Now this is actually a popular plaque, and this is a crowd of overachievers, so I'm betting that some of you have this plaque. Don't feel ashamed. Putting fear of failure out of your mind can be a very good thing if you're training for a triathlon or preparing to give a TEDTalk, but personally, I think people with the power to detonate our economy and ravage our ecology would do better having a picture of Icarus hanging from the wall, because — maybe not that one in particular — but I want them thinking about the possibility of failure all of the time. So we have greed, we've got overconfidence/hubris, but since we're here at TEDWomen, let's consider one other factor that could be contributing in some small way to societal recklessness. Now I'm not going to belabor this point, but studies do show that, as investors, women are much less prone to taking reckless risks than men, precisely because, as we've already heard, women tend not to suffer from overconfidence in the same way that men do. So it turns out that being paid less and praised less has its upsides — for society at least. The flipside of this is that constantly being told that you are gifted, chosen and born to rule has distinct societal downsides. And this problem — call it the "perils of privilege" — brings us closer, I think, to the root of our collective recklessness. Because none of us — at least in the global North — neither men nor women, are fully exempt from this message. Here's what I'm talking about. Whether we actively believe them or consciously reject them, our culture remains in the grips of certain archetypal stories about our supremacy over others and over nature — the narrative of the newly discovered frontier and the conquering pioneer, the narrative of manifest destiny, the narrative of apocalypse and salvation. And just when you think these stories are fading into history, and that we've gotten over them, they pop up in the strangest places. For instance, I stumbled across this advertisement outside the women's washroom in the Kansas City airport. It's for Motorola's new Rugged cell phone, and yes, it really does say, "Slap Mother Nature in the face." And I'm not just showing it to pick on Motorola — that's just a bonus. I'm showing it because — they're not a sponsor, are they? — because, in its own way, this is a crass version of our founding story. We slapped Mother Nature around and won, and we always win, because dominating nature is our destiny. But this is not the only fairytale we tell ourselves about nature. There's another one, equally important, about how that very same Mother Nature is so nurturing and so resilient that we can never make a dent in her abundance. Let's hear from Tony Hayward again. "The Gulf of Mexico is a very big ocean. The amount of oil and dispersants that we are putting into it is tiny in relation to the total water volume." In other words, the ocean is big; she can take it. It is this underlying assumption of limitlessness that makes it possible to take the reckless risks that we do. Because this is our real master-narrative: however much we mess up, there will always be more — more water, more land, more untapped resources. A new bubble will replace the old one. A new technology will come along to fix the messes we made with the last one. In a way, that is the story of the settling of the Americas, the supposedly inexhaustible frontier to which Europeans escaped. And it's also the story of modern capitalism, because it was the wealth from this land that gave birth to our economic system, one that cannot survive without perpetual growth and an unending supply of new frontiers. Now the problem is that the story was always a lie. The Earth always did have limits. They were just beyond our sights. And now we are hitting those limits on multiple fronts. I believe that we know this, yet we find ourselves trapped in a kind of narrative loop. Not only do we continue to tell and retell the same tired stories, but we are now doing so with a frenzy and a fury that, frankly, verges on camp. How else to explain the cultural space occupied by Sarah Palin? Now on the one hand, exhorting us to "drill, baby, drill," because God put those resources into the ground in order for us to exploit them, and on the other, glorying in the wilderness of Alaska's untouched beauty on her hit reality TV show. The twin message is as comforting as it is mad. Ignore those creeping fears that we have finally hit the wall. There are still no limits. There will always be another frontier. So stop worrying and keep shopping. Now, would that this were just about Sarah Palin and her reality TV show. In environmental circles, we often hear that, rather than shifting to renewables, we are continuing with business as usual. This assessment, unfortunately, is far too optimistic. The truth is that we have already exhausted so much of the easily accessible fossil fuels that we have already entered a far riskier business era, the era of extreme energy. So that means drilling for oil in the deepest water, including the icy Arctic seas, where a clean-up may simply be impossible. It means large-scale hydraulic fracking for gas and massive strip-mining operations for coal, the likes of which we haven't yet seen. And most controversially, it means the tar sands. I'm always surprised by how little people outside of Canada know about the Alberta Tar Sands, which this year are projected to become the number one source of imported oil to the United States. It's worth taking a moment to understand this practice, because I believe it speaks to recklessness and the path we're on like little else. So this is where the tar sands live, under one of the last magnificent Boreal forests. The oil is not liquid. You can't just drill a hole and pump it out. Tar sand's oil is solid, mixed in with the soil. So to get at it, you first have to get rid of the trees. Then, you rip off the topsoil and get at that oily sand. The process requires a huge amount of water, which is then pumped into massive toxic tailing ponds. That's very bad news for local indigenous people living downstream who are reporting alarmingly high cancer rates. Now looking at these images, it's difficult to grasp the scale of this operation, which can already be seen from space and could grow to an area the size of England. I find it helps actually to look at the dump trucks that move the earth, the largest ever built. That's a person down there by the wheel. My point is that this is not oil drilling. It's not even mining. It is terrestrial skinning. Vast, vivid landscapes are being gutted, left monochromatic gray. Now I should confess that as [far as] I'm concerned this would be an abomination if it emitted not one particle of carbon. But the truth is that, on average, turning that gunk into crude oil produces about three times more greenhouse gas pollution than it does to produce conventional oil in Canada. How else to describe this, but as a form of mass insanity? Just when we know we need to be learning to live on the surface of our planet, off the power of sun, wind and waves, we are frantically digging to get at the dirtiest, highest-emitting stuff imaginable. This is where our story of endless growth has taken us, to this black hole at the center of my country — a place of such planetary pain that, like the BP gusher, one can only stand to look at it for so long. As Jared Diamond and others have shown us, this is how civilizations commit suicide, by slamming their foot on the accelerator at the exact moment when they should be putting on the brakes. The problem is that our master-narrative has an answer for that too. At the very last minute, we are going to get saved just like in every Hollywood movie, just like in the Rapture. But, of course, our secular religion is technology. Now, you may have noticed more and more headlines like these. The idea behind this form of "geoengineering" as it's called, is that, as the planet heats up, we may be able to shoot sulfates and aluminum particles into the stratosphere to reflect some of the sun's rays back to space, thereby cooling the planet. The wackiest plan — and I'm not making this up — would put what is essentially a garden hose 18-and-a-half miles high into the sky, suspended by balloons, to spew sulfur dioxide. So, solving the problem of pollution with more pollution. Think of it as the ultimate junk shot. The serious scientists involved in this research all stress that these techniques are entirely untested. They don't know if they'll work, and they have no idea what kind of terrifying side effects they could unleash. Nevertheless, the mere mention of geoengineering is being greeted in some circles, particularly media circles, with a relief tinged with euphoria. An escape hatch has been reached. A new frontier has been found. Most importantly, we don't have to change our lifestyles after all. You see, for some people, their savior is a guy in a flowing robe. For other people, it's a guy with a garden hose. We badly need some new stories. We need stories that have different kinds of heroes willing to take different kinds of risks — risks that confront recklessness head on, that put the precautionary principle into practice, even if that means through direct action — like hundreds of young people willing to get arrested, blocking dirty power plants or fighting mountaintop-removal coal mining. We need stories that replace that linear narrative of endless growth with circular narratives that remind us that what goes around comes around. That this is our only home. There is no escape hatch. Call it karma, call it physics, action and reaction, call it precaution — the principle that reminds us that life is too precious to be risked for any profit. Thank you. (Applause)

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
mother nature 3
big stuff 2
exit strategy 2
junk shot 2
precautionary principle 2
reckless risks 2
reality tv 2
tv show 2
tar sands 2
endless growth 2
garden hose 2
escape hatch 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
reality tv show 2

Important Words

  1. abomination
  2. abundance
  3. accelerator
  4. accessible
  5. accompanying
  6. act
  7. action
  8. actively
  9. advertisement
  10. afford
  11. airport
  12. alarmingly
  13. alberta
  14. aluminum
  15. americas
  16. amount
  17. amounts
  18. analysis
  19. ancestral
  20. answer
  21. apocalypse
  22. applause
  23. archetypal
  24. arctic
  25. area
  26. arrested
  27. ashamed
  28. assessment
  29. assumption
  30. attempt
  31. average
  32. avoid
  33. awesomely
  34. baby
  35. bad
  36. badly
  37. balloons
  38. balls
  39. banker
  40. barrel
  41. based
  42. beauty
  43. belabor
  44. betting
  45. big
  46. bigger
  47. birds
  48. birth
  49. bizarre
  50. black
  51. blocking
  52. boat
  53. bonus
  54. boreal
  55. born
  56. boy
  57. bp
  58. brain
  59. brakes
  60. bright
  61. brightest
  62. brings
  63. bubble
  64. built
  65. burden
  66. burst
  67. business
  68. cakewalks
  69. call
  70. called
  71. calls
  72. camp
  73. canada
  74. canadian
  75. cancer
  76. capitalism
  77. carbon
  78. carelessness
  79. carson
  80. case
  81. catastrophe
  82. caution
  83. cell
  84. celsius
  85. center
  86. ceo
  87. certainty
  88. chain
  89. change
  90. characterized
  91. chosen
  92. circles
  93. circular
  94. city
  95. civilizations
  96. clear
  97. climate
  98. closer
  99. coal
  100. cold
  101. collective
  102. comforting
  103. coming
  104. commit
  105. complex
  106. concerned
  107. confess
  108. confront
  109. conquering
  110. consciously
  111. constantly
  112. contents
  113. continue
  114. continuing
  115. contrary
  116. contributing
  117. control
  118. controversially
  119. conventional
  120. convincing
  121. cooling
  122. country
  123. crass
  124. crazy
  125. create
  126. creeping
  127. crisis
  128. crowd
  129. crude
  130. cultural
  131. culture
  132. damage
  133. day
  134. ddt
  135. deadly
  136. deal
  137. debate
  138. deciding
  139. deepest
  140. degrees
  141. demand
  142. dent
  143. depends
  144. describe
  145. desk
  146. destiny
  147. detonate
  148. diamond
  149. died
  150. difficult
  151. digging
  152. dine
  153. dioxide
  154. direct
  155. dirtiest
  156. dirty
  157. disappeared
  158. disaster
  159. discovered
  160. disparity
  161. dispersants
  162. distinct
  163. dolphins
  164. dominating
  165. downsides
  166. downstream
  167. draw
  168. drawing
  169. drill
  170. drilling
  171. dump
  172. earth
  173. easily
  174. eat
  175. eaten
  176. ecology
  177. economic
  178. economists
  179. economy
  180. effect
  181. effects
  182. eggs
  183. emanating
  184. emissions
  185. emitted
  186. en
  187. endless
  188. energy
  189. england
  190. entered
  191. environment
  192. environmental
  193. environmentalism
  194. equally
  195. equivalent
  196. era
  197. err
  198. escape
  199. escaped
  200. essentially
  201. euphoria
  202. europeans
  203. evelyn
  204. eventually
  205. exact
  206. exacting
  207. exempt
  208. exhausted
  209. exhorting
  210. exists
  211. exit
  212. experience
  213. explain
  214. explanation
  215. explanations
  216. exploit
  217. extent
  218. extreme
  219. face
  220. fact
  221. factor
  222. fading
  223. fail
  224. failed
  225. failure
  226. fairytale
  227. fall
  228. fantasy
  229. fear
  230. fears
  231. feedback
  232. feel
  233. fell
  234. ferocious
  235. fields
  236. fighting
  237. figure
  238. finally
  239. financial
  240. find
  241. finding
  242. firing
  243. fix
  244. flipside
  245. florida
  246. flowing
  247. food
  248. foot
  249. forests
  250. forgot
  251. form
  252. fossil
  253. founding
  254. fox
  255. fracking
  256. frankensteins
  257. frankly
  258. frantically
  259. frenzy
  260. frontier
  261. frontiers
  262. fronts
  263. fuels
  264. fully
  265. fury
  266. future
  267. gamble
  268. gamed
  269. garden
  270. gas
  271. gave
  272. gdp
  273. genius
  274. geoengineering
  275. gifted
  276. give
  277. glamorous
  278. global
  279. glorying
  280. god
  281. godmother
  282. goldilocks
  283. golf
  284. good
  285. grasp
  286. gray
  287. great
  288. greed
  289. greenhouse
  290. greeted
  291. grips
  292. ground
  293. grow
  294. growth
  295. grubs
  296. gulf
  297. gunk
  298. gush
  299. gusher
  300. gutted
  301. guy
  302. hand
  303. hanging
  304. happen
  305. happy
  306. harmed
  307. hatch
  308. hats
  309. hayward
  310. head
  311. headlines
  312. health
  313. hear
  314. heard
  315. heats
  316. helps
  317. heroes
  318. high
  319. highly
  320. history
  321. hit
  322. hitting
  323. holds
  324. hole
  325. hollywood
  326. home
  327. hose
  328. hot
  329. hotter
  330. hours
  331. hubris
  332. huge
  333. human
  334. hundreds
  335. hydraulic
  336. icarus
  337. icy
  338. idea
  339. ignore
  340. images
  341. imaginable
  342. impact
  343. important
  344. importantly
  345. imported
  346. imposing
  347. impossible
  348. improv
  349. including
  350. incredibly
  351. indigenous
  352. industry
  353. inevitably
  354. inexhaustible
  355. insanity
  356. inscribed
  357. insecticides
  358. insects
  359. inspirational
  360. instance
  361. intertwined
  362. intimately
  363. investors
  364. involved
  365. ipc
  366. irreplaceable
  367. irreversible
  368. jared
  369. junk
  370. kansas
  371. karma
  372. keller
  373. kill
  374. kind
  375. kinds
  376. knew
  377. lack
  378. land
  379. landscapes
  380. largest
  381. latest
  382. leaders
  383. learning
  384. left
  385. letting
  386. lie
  387. life
  388. lifestyles
  389. likes
  390. limitlessness
  391. limits
  392. linear
  393. liquid
  394. live
  395. living
  396. local
  397. long
  398. loop
  399. loops
  400. lot
  401. lots
  402. lowering
  403. mad
  404. magically
  405. magnificent
  406. making
  407. manifest
  408. market
  409. mass
  410. masse
  411. massive
  412. meaning
  413. means
  414. meant
  415. mechanistic
  416. media
  417. memorably
  418. men
  419. mention
  420. mere
  421. mess
  422. message
  423. messes
  424. mexico
  425. midst
  426. miles
  427. mind
  428. mining
  429. minute
  430. mit
  431. mixed
  432. modern
  433. moment
  434. money
  435. monochromatic
  436. months
  437. mother
  438. motorola
  439. move
  440. movie
  441. multiple
  442. narrative
  443. narratives
  444. nature
  445. newly
  446. news
  447. north
  448. noticed
  449. number
  450. nurturing
  451. occupied
  452. ocean
  453. oil
  454. oily
  455. operation
  456. operations
  457. optimistic
  458. options
  459. order
  460. overachievers
  461. overconfidence
  462. overconfident
  463. overt
  464. overwhelmed
  465. paid
  466. pain
  467. palin
  468. parades
  469. particle
  470. particles
  471. path
  472. pays
  473. people
  474. percent
  475. perfect
  476. perpetual
  477. person
  478. personally
  479. phone
  480. physicist
  481. physics
  482. phytoplankton
  483. pick
  484. picture
  485. pinpoint
  486. pioneer
  487. place
  488. places
  489. plan
  490. planet
  491. planetary
  492. planning
  493. plants
  494. plaque
  495. plugged
  496. point
  497. pointed
  498. policy
  499. pollution
  500. ponds
  501. pop
  502. popping
  503. popular
  504. possibility
  505. potential
  506. power
  507. practice
  508. praised
  509. precaution
  510. precautionary
  511. precious
  512. precisely
  513. preparing
  514. price
  515. principle
  516. problem
  517. process
  518. produce
  519. produces
  520. profit
  521. projected
  522. prone
  523. proving
  524. public
  525. pump
  526. pumped
  527. pure
  528. put
  529. puts
  530. putting
  531. question
  532. questions
  533. quickly
  534. rachel
  535. range
  536. rapture
  537. rates
  538. ravage
  539. rays
  540. reach
  541. reached
  542. reaction
  543. real
  544. reality
  545. reckless
  546. recklessness
  547. reflect
  548. reject
  549. relation
  550. relevant
  551. relief
  552. religion
  553. remains
  554. remarkable
  555. remind
  556. reminds
  557. renewables
  558. replace
  559. reporting
  560. requires
  561. research
  562. resilient
  563. resources
  564. retell
  565. rid
  566. rip
  567. ripped
  568. risk
  569. risked
  570. riskier
  571. risks
  572. robe
  573. robin
  574. robins
  575. root
  576. routinely
  577. rugged
  578. rule
  579. safe
  580. safely
  581. salvation
  582. sand
  583. sands
  584. sarah
  585. saturated
  586. saved
  587. savior
  588. scale
  589. scammer
  590. science
  591. scientific
  592. scientist
  593. scientists
  594. sea
  595. seas
  596. secular
  597. settling
  598. shifting
  599. shoot
  600. shopping
  601. shot
  602. show
  603. showing
  604. shown
  605. side
  606. sieges
  607. sights
  608. significantly
  609. silent
  610. similar
  611. simply
  612. size
  613. skinning
  614. sky
  615. slamming
  616. slapped
  617. slightly
  618. small
  619. societal
  620. society
  621. soil
  622. solid
  623. solving
  624. songbirds
  625. sort
  626. source
  627. south
  628. space
  629. speaks
  630. spent
  631. spew
  632. sponsor
  633. spring
  634. stakes
  635. stand
  636. stands
  637. states
  638. stop
  639. stories
  640. story
  641. strangest
  642. strategy
  643. stratosphere
  644. stress
  645. striking
  646. studies
  647. studying
  648. stuff
  649. stumbled
  650. style
  651. suddenly
  652. suffer
  653. suicide
  654. sulfates
  655. sulfur
  656. sun
  657. supply
  658. supposedly
  659. supremacy
  660. surface
  661. surgeon
  662. surges
  663. surprise
  664. surprised
  665. survive
  666. suspended
  667. system
  668. tailing
  669. talking
  670. tar
  671. team
  672. techniques
  673. technology
  674. tedtalk
  675. tedwomen
  676. telling
  677. temporarily
  678. tend
  679. terms
  680. terrestrial
  681. terrifying
  682. theory
  683. thermostat
  684. thinking
  685. throwing
  686. ties
  687. time
  688. times
  689. tinged
  690. tiny
  691. tired
  692. tires
  693. title
  694. told
  695. tony
  696. tools
  697. topsoil
  698. total
  699. towns
  700. toxic
  701. trace
  702. tracking
  703. training
  704. trapped
  705. travels
  706. trees
  707. tremendous
  708. triathlon
  709. trucks
  710. truth
  711. turning
  712. turns
  713. turtles
  714. tv
  715. twin
  716. ultimate
  717. underlying
  718. understand
  719. unending
  720. unfolding
  721. united
  722. university
  723. unleash
  724. unleashed
  725. untapped
  726. untested
  727. untouched
  728. upsides
  729. usual
  730. utterly
  731. vast
  732. vastly
  733. verges
  734. version
  735. vessel
  736. victim
  737. vivid
  738. volume
  739. wackiest
  740. wait
  741. wall
  742. warming
  743. warned
  744. wars
  745. washroom
  746. watch
  747. water
  748. watery
  749. waves
  750. weakness
  751. wealth
  752. wealthy
  753. week
  754. wheel
  755. wilderness
  756. win
  757. wind
  758. witness
  759. wizards
  760. women
  761. won
  762. words
  763. work
  764. working
  765. world
  766. worms
  767. worry
  768. worrying
  769. worth
  770. wrong
  771. year
  772. years
  773. young