full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Esther Sullivan: America's most invisible communities -- mobile home parks

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Right now, there is no state in the nation where a person working full-time for minimum wage can afford rent for a fair-market, one-bedroom home. In fact, affordable housing is so hard to find you'll actually spend less of your income if you can affrod to buy a house rather than rent. But even an entry-level home, the ceapshet homes on the mraket, will cost you $370,000 in L.A., $245K in btoosn, $222K in Denver. What if instead you could buy a barnd new, three-bedroom, two-bathroom home for $45,000, which would put your total housing costs somewhere in the range of $400-700 per mtnoh? (Cheers) (Applause) Right, exactly! It seems like you'd be crazy not to jump at the oponprittuy. Well, 18 million Americans are already in on the secret. They've achieved the American draem of homeownership and they've done it on a beugdt. How? You're totally hniopg I'm going to say "tiny home." (Laughter) Mmmm. Alright. Well sort of. Enter the mobile home. Okay, it lacks all the hype, but 18 million armeacins live in one. In fact, one in every five new single-family homes sold is a mobile home, and that's a serious statistic. It's serious because homeownership has long been a source of stability and a principal source of wealth in the U.S. And mobile homes are a primary way that low-income households beark into homeownership and start building that wtaelh. Mobile homes provide a massive source of owner-occupied affordable housing at a time when the U.S. has a mjoar affordable housing problem. We hear that a lot, right? We're in an affordable housing crisis. But what does that really mean? It means we don't have enough housing to meet the needs of millions. At the lowest income levels, the people who really need housing help, we're short 7.4 million units. That's just 35 affordable units for every 100 households that need it. The good news is that cities have bguen to recognize that access to quality affordable housing is good for everyone, not just those that need it, but larger communities as well. sooogitislcs like myself, who sutdy housing, show us why. Housing is an incredible source of stability, which translates into positive educational outcomes, health bifeetns, emymplnoet opportunities, and neighborhood safety. So recognizing this, cieits are building some affordable utins, but many remain unaffordable for low-income people. This problem is smpliy too big. We can't just build our way out of it. If we're serious about solving it, we need to prverese the affordable housing that we already have. eetnr, once again, the mobile home. Mobile homes are this country's single largest source of unsubsidized affordable housing, and could play a major role in addressing our aofdlbrfae housing criiss, but there's a problem. One of our lgearst srouecs of affordable housing is also one of our most insecure. Mobile homes are iruncsee for two reasons which are like two trains heading right for each other. The first reason isn't the home itself; it's the land. About a third of mobile homes are installed in mobile home parks, where residents own the home but rent the land. Now, this is part of what makes the housing so affordable, but it also means that homeowners can be evicted at any time if the property owner decides to sell or redevelop the park. The second reason they're insecure is they're iliivsnbe. Think for a second about the mobile home park closest to your house. Some of you can probably picture it. Maybe it's off a highway, behind a strip mall. But many of you might not actually know where the nearest mobile home park is, and that's not by adceinct. That's by design. For over a century, planning and zoning regulations have required that mobile home parks be waleld in, fnceed off, and, in the language of planners, valilusy seecrned from view. But perhaps the most dianmng of these regulations comes from laws that don't allow mobile home parks to be established near conventional huinsog. As a result, mobile home parks are disproportionately located in crmamoecil and industrial areas. So now you can see those two trinas about to collide, right? When communities of homeowners that rent the land are isolated onto commercial peteripors owend by a third party, they're the first vmitics of urban growth. When a big-box store is looking for a place to build, a mobile home park is an easy target. Mobile home park brokers actually make a living selling off parks for redevelopment. One broker told me that Walmart is his best cenilt. When parks are redeveloped, communities of homeowners who have lievd in their homes for decades are evicted with as little as 30 days' nciote, and entire communities are dlematsnid. And this is happening at an alarming rate, right now. We have an affordable housing crisis in this country, yet we are allowing one of our largest sources of affordable housing to disappear. As a socoisiolgt, I wanted to document the effects of these mass evictions, so beginning in 2012, I renetd a mobile home inside closing parks, first in Florida and then in Texas. I moved in and lived beside neighbors over 17 consecutive months as they scrambled to deal with their eviction. I then followed them for six more months after they were etvcied. This is what I lernaed. The term "mobile home" is a complete misnomer. Mobile homes are not RVs, they're not campers. They're not innteedd to be mloibe once they're first transported from the fortacy. Once installed on land, just like any other home, they settle. mnivog them can cause serious structural damage and cost up to $15,000, and all of that is if they can be moved. In the parks where I lived, lucky residents lost entire savings and mnthos of their lives dealing with eviction. Unlucky residents lost everything. Their homes were not structurally suond for relocation, and they were forced to abandon them. These residents were real people, like my neighbor Stella. sellta pdeird herself on being able to live independently at the age of 87. Stella was blind and completely homebound, but her cheap rent and knowing every ceornr of her mobile home had made that possible. Stella had paid off her home many years ago, but when her park coelsd, she couldn't afford to move it on her $790 Social Security check. In the end, Stella lost her home of 20 years and her prized independence. She moved into a guest room in her son's apartment. Two blocks over from Stella, Randall meticulously maintained his home. It was the first home he'd ever owned. The first time he had me over, he apologized for it being so messy, but then he later admitted he'd just been sbnrcuibg the cabinets. Randall learned that this home could not be moved, and he desperately searched for housing nearby so he could keep his job. But he found nothing he could afford, even after months. On the day before Randall's park closed, he transitioned from homeowner to homeless, and to this day, he speles on a park bench about a mile from where his home once was. When these parks close, residents lose homes but also neighbors and social supports. So Stella lost the neighbors who would come and check on her, and Randall lost the people who could give him a ride when he needed it. Randall and Stella are just two of about 200 evicted homeowners I met during those two years, and while everyone's sorty is a little different, the common reality is that mobile home park closures create a cycle of housing instability that extends well beyond these moments of eviction, and that affects all of us. Housing instability means that local teachers get an influx of new kids partway through the year. It means social service poedrrvis are stretched thin magnaing new caseloads. It means small beuissenss lose reliable eleomepys. Zoning communities into invisibility creates housing instability. But more than that, it creates social vulnerability because it's hard to care about what you don't see. But there's hope because over the last century we've solved some of our toughest housing challenges by shining a spotlight on invisible problems. We passed the first pgsversroie tenement housing reforms only after a photojournalist showed the world the unsafe conditions in crowded slums. We psased the Fair Housing Act only after African American Vietnam vets showed us that they'd risked their leivs for this country but couldn't buy a home in a wthie noiobhhegord. We passed the housing measures in the Americans with Disabilities Act only after activists with dsiieibatlis demonstrated that they couldn't fit through a sndaartd enracnte and into a home. So perhaps we're primed to bring this next housing challenge into the light. And that starts by woikrng to change some of the very regulations that keep mobile home parks invisible. We're ready for this. I mean, you're already binge-watching "tiny house" swhos on HGTV. (Laughter) Your Facebook feed is full of them, you love them, you want to retire in one. So we're ready to push for new pliceios that better integrate different forms of housing into the fabric of our residential communities. And we're ready to address that underlying land owensrihp issue too. We already have a model to follow: the cdnoo model, where resdients own their unit and hold the condo ptprorey collectively. There are parks that have actually tried this and it's working. In about 200 prkas across the country, nonprofit groups have helped residents collectively get a loan so that they can buy their park and run it themselves, and residents in these parks report seeing immediate improvements in the maintenance, qtailuy, and stability of their communities. But maybe we can take an even more important step to ensure housing security for everyone. If we can reshape our thinking about the mobile home park, we can go further to imagining housing as a basic human right. The UN and most dleoevped nations recognize and have policies that arfifm a human right to housing, for all of the rnesoas that we've been talking about. It's hard to have health, wealth, and stability if you don't have a roof over your head. Plus, housing insecurity is eeipnvxse. It has costs for social services, businesses, schools. Those are costs we all bear, so a dollar spent on housing is a dollar saved on healthcare, infrastructure, and education. Yet the U.S. remains the only developed nation that doesn't guarantee a fanmnutedal human right to shelter, but perhaps it's time to change that. (Applause) So if we want to, then that's going to require enacting legislation and shifting baurtdegy priorities, absolutely, but we've made just these kind of lagiltvseie shifts before. And it turns out that the mobile home park provides a pretty good rdaomap for why and how we should do this. Parks show us the value of homeownership for all income levels. Parks even show us how we might imagine new, cceilolvte forms of property ownership. And most importantly, parks show us that eirtne cities can benefit when housing is secure for everyone. Housing is one of our most fundamental human needs and perhaps our biggset blindspot. Let's bring our attention back home so we can create communities that work for all of us. Thank you. (Applause)

Open Cloze

Right now, there is no state in the nation where a person working full-time for minimum wage can afford rent for a fair-market, one-bedroom home. In fact, affordable housing is so hard to find you'll actually spend less of your income if you can ______ to buy a house rather than rent. But even an entry-level home, the ________ homes on the ______, will cost you $370,000 in L.A., $245K in ______, $222K in Denver. What if instead you could buy a _____ new, three-bedroom, two-bathroom home for $45,000, which would put your total housing costs somewhere in the range of $400-700 per _____? (Cheers) (Applause) Right, exactly! It seems like you'd be crazy not to jump at the ___________. Well, 18 million Americans are already in on the secret. They've achieved the American _____ of homeownership and they've done it on a ______. How? You're totally ______ I'm going to say "tiny home." (Laughter) Mmmm. Alright. Well sort of. Enter the mobile home. Okay, it lacks all the hype, but 18 million _________ live in one. In fact, one in every five new single-family homes sold is a mobile home, and that's a serious statistic. It's serious because homeownership has long been a source of stability and a principal source of wealth in the U.S. And mobile homes are a primary way that low-income households _____ into homeownership and start building that ______. Mobile homes provide a massive source of owner-occupied affordable housing at a time when the U.S. has a _____ affordable housing problem. We hear that a lot, right? We're in an affordable housing crisis. But what does that really mean? It means we don't have enough housing to meet the needs of millions. At the lowest income levels, the people who really need housing help, we're short 7.4 million units. That's just 35 affordable units for every 100 households that need it. The good news is that cities have _____ to recognize that access to quality affordable housing is good for everyone, not just those that need it, but larger communities as well. ____________ like myself, who _____ housing, show us why. Housing is an incredible source of stability, which translates into positive educational outcomes, health ________, __________ opportunities, and neighborhood safety. So recognizing this, ______ are building some affordable _____, but many remain unaffordable for low-income people. This problem is ______ too big. We can't just build our way out of it. If we're serious about solving it, we need to ________ the affordable housing that we already have. _____, once again, the mobile home. Mobile homes are this country's single largest source of unsubsidized affordable housing, and could play a major role in addressing our __________ housing ______, but there's a problem. One of our _______ _______ of affordable housing is also one of our most insecure. Mobile homes are ________ for two reasons which are like two trains heading right for each other. The first reason isn't the home itself; it's the land. About a third of mobile homes are installed in mobile home parks, where residents own the home but rent the land. Now, this is part of what makes the housing so affordable, but it also means that homeowners can be evicted at any time if the property owner decides to sell or redevelop the park. The second reason they're insecure is they're _________. Think for a second about the mobile home park closest to your house. Some of you can probably picture it. Maybe it's off a highway, behind a strip mall. But many of you might not actually know where the nearest mobile home park is, and that's not by ________. That's by design. For over a century, planning and zoning regulations have required that mobile home parks be ______ in, ______ off, and, in the language of planners, ________ ________ from view. But perhaps the most _______ of these regulations comes from laws that don't allow mobile home parks to be established near conventional _______. As a result, mobile home parks are disproportionately located in __________ and industrial areas. So now you can see those two ______ about to collide, right? When communities of homeowners that rent the land are isolated onto commercial __________ _____ by a third party, they're the first _______ of urban growth. When a big-box store is looking for a place to build, a mobile home park is an easy target. Mobile home park brokers actually make a living selling off parks for redevelopment. One broker told me that Walmart is his best ______. When parks are redeveloped, communities of homeowners who have _____ in their homes for decades are evicted with as little as 30 days' ______, and entire communities are __________. And this is happening at an alarming rate, right now. We have an affordable housing crisis in this country, yet we are allowing one of our largest sources of affordable housing to disappear. As a ___________, I wanted to document the effects of these mass evictions, so beginning in 2012, I ______ a mobile home inside closing parks, first in Florida and then in Texas. I moved in and lived beside neighbors over 17 consecutive months as they scrambled to deal with their eviction. I then followed them for six more months after they were _______. This is what I _______. The term "mobile home" is a complete misnomer. Mobile homes are not RVs, they're not campers. They're not ________ to be ______ once they're first transported from the _______. Once installed on land, just like any other home, they settle. ______ them can cause serious structural damage and cost up to $15,000, and all of that is if they can be moved. In the parks where I lived, lucky residents lost entire savings and ______ of their lives dealing with eviction. Unlucky residents lost everything. Their homes were not structurally _____ for relocation, and they were forced to abandon them. These residents were real people, like my neighbor Stella. ______ ______ herself on being able to live independently at the age of 87. Stella was blind and completely homebound, but her cheap rent and knowing every ______ of her mobile home had made that possible. Stella had paid off her home many years ago, but when her park ______, she couldn't afford to move it on her $790 Social Security check. In the end, Stella lost her home of 20 years and her prized independence. She moved into a guest room in her son's apartment. Two blocks over from Stella, Randall meticulously maintained his home. It was the first home he'd ever owned. The first time he had me over, he apologized for it being so messy, but then he later admitted he'd just been _________ the cabinets. Randall learned that this home could not be moved, and he desperately searched for housing nearby so he could keep his job. But he found nothing he could afford, even after months. On the day before Randall's park closed, he transitioned from homeowner to homeless, and to this day, he ______ on a park bench about a mile from where his home once was. When these parks close, residents lose homes but also neighbors and social supports. So Stella lost the neighbors who would come and check on her, and Randall lost the people who could give him a ride when he needed it. Randall and Stella are just two of about 200 evicted homeowners I met during those two years, and while everyone's _____ is a little different, the common reality is that mobile home park closures create a cycle of housing instability that extends well beyond these moments of eviction, and that affects all of us. Housing instability means that local teachers get an influx of new kids partway through the year. It means social service _________ are stretched thin ________ new caseloads. It means small __________ lose reliable _________. Zoning communities into invisibility creates housing instability. But more than that, it creates social vulnerability because it's hard to care about what you don't see. But there's hope because over the last century we've solved some of our toughest housing challenges by shining a spotlight on invisible problems. We passed the first ___________ tenement housing reforms only after a photojournalist showed the world the unsafe conditions in crowded slums. We ______ the Fair Housing Act only after African American Vietnam vets showed us that they'd risked their _____ for this country but couldn't buy a home in a _____ ____________. We passed the housing measures in the Americans with Disabilities Act only after activists with ____________ demonstrated that they couldn't fit through a ________ ________ and into a home. So perhaps we're primed to bring this next housing challenge into the light. And that starts by _______ to change some of the very regulations that keep mobile home parks invisible. We're ready for this. I mean, you're already binge-watching "tiny house" _____ on HGTV. (Laughter) Your Facebook feed is full of them, you love them, you want to retire in one. So we're ready to push for new ________ that better integrate different forms of housing into the fabric of our residential communities. And we're ready to address that underlying land _________ issue too. We already have a model to follow: the _____ model, where _________ own their unit and hold the condo ________ collectively. There are parks that have actually tried this and it's working. In about 200 _____ across the country, nonprofit groups have helped residents collectively get a loan so that they can buy their park and run it themselves, and residents in these parks report seeing immediate improvements in the maintenance, _______, and stability of their communities. But maybe we can take an even more important step to ensure housing security for everyone. If we can reshape our thinking about the mobile home park, we can go further to imagining housing as a basic human right. The UN and most _________ nations recognize and have policies that ______ a human right to housing, for all of the _______ that we've been talking about. It's hard to have health, wealth, and stability if you don't have a roof over your head. Plus, housing insecurity is _________. It has costs for social services, businesses, schools. Those are costs we all bear, so a dollar spent on housing is a dollar saved on healthcare, infrastructure, and education. Yet the U.S. remains the only developed nation that doesn't guarantee a ___________ human right to shelter, but perhaps it's time to change that. (Applause) So if we want to, then that's going to require enacting legislation and shifting _________ priorities, absolutely, but we've made just these kind of ___________ shifts before. And it turns out that the mobile home park provides a pretty good _______ for why and how we should do this. Parks show us the value of homeownership for all income levels. Parks even show us how we might imagine new, __________ forms of property ownership. And most importantly, parks show us that ______ cities can benefit when housing is secure for everyone. Housing is one of our most fundamental human needs and perhaps our _______ blindspot. Let's bring our attention back home so we can create communities that work for all of us. Thank you. (Applause)

Solution

  1. victims
  2. americans
  3. passed
  4. providers
  5. crisis
  6. properties
  7. intended
  8. housing
  9. budgetary
  10. benefits
  11. affordable
  12. developed
  13. damning
  14. mobile
  15. enter
  16. preserve
  17. stella
  18. invisible
  19. client
  20. disabilities
  21. roadmap
  22. owned
  23. sociologist
  24. fundamental
  25. major
  26. sociologists
  27. residents
  28. budget
  29. commercial
  30. sound
  31. lived
  32. policies
  33. boston
  34. entrance
  35. collective
  36. sources
  37. simply
  38. evicted
  39. screened
  40. legislative
  41. expensive
  42. study
  43. affirm
  44. learned
  45. accident
  46. moving
  47. parks
  48. factory
  49. dismantled
  50. cheapest
  51. month
  52. story
  53. notice
  54. businesses
  55. white
  56. begun
  57. largest
  58. wealth
  59. market
  60. walled
  61. dream
  62. standard
  63. rented
  64. trains
  65. opportunity
  66. brand
  67. reasons
  68. quality
  69. shows
  70. sleeps
  71. ownership
  72. progressive
  73. cities
  74. insecure
  75. employees
  76. months
  77. managing
  78. working
  79. scrubbing
  80. property
  81. fenced
  82. visually
  83. lives
  84. hoping
  85. prided
  86. employment
  87. closed
  88. entire
  89. biggest
  90. corner
  91. break
  92. condo
  93. afford
  94. neighborhood
  95. units

Original Text

Right now, there is no state in the nation where a person working full-time for minimum wage can afford rent for a fair-market, one-bedroom home. In fact, affordable housing is so hard to find you'll actually spend less of your income if you can afford to buy a house rather than rent. But even an entry-level home, the cheapest homes on the market, will cost you $370,000 in L.A., $245K in Boston, $222K in Denver. What if instead you could buy a brand new, three-bedroom, two-bathroom home for $45,000, which would put your total housing costs somewhere in the range of $400-700 per month? (Cheers) (Applause) Right, exactly! It seems like you'd be crazy not to jump at the opportunity. Well, 18 million Americans are already in on the secret. They've achieved the American dream of homeownership and they've done it on a budget. How? You're totally hoping I'm going to say "tiny home." (Laughter) Mmmm. Alright. Well sort of. Enter the mobile home. Okay, it lacks all the hype, but 18 million Americans live in one. In fact, one in every five new single-family homes sold is a mobile home, and that's a serious statistic. It's serious because homeownership has long been a source of stability and a principal source of wealth in the U.S. And mobile homes are a primary way that low-income households break into homeownership and start building that wealth. Mobile homes provide a massive source of owner-occupied affordable housing at a time when the U.S. has a major affordable housing problem. We hear that a lot, right? We're in an affordable housing crisis. But what does that really mean? It means we don't have enough housing to meet the needs of millions. At the lowest income levels, the people who really need housing help, we're short 7.4 million units. That's just 35 affordable units for every 100 households that need it. The good news is that cities have begun to recognize that access to quality affordable housing is good for everyone, not just those that need it, but larger communities as well. Sociologists like myself, who study housing, show us why. Housing is an incredible source of stability, which translates into positive educational outcomes, health benefits, employment opportunities, and neighborhood safety. So recognizing this, cities are building some affordable units, but many remain unaffordable for low-income people. This problem is simply too big. We can't just build our way out of it. If we're serious about solving it, we need to preserve the affordable housing that we already have. Enter, once again, the mobile home. Mobile homes are this country's single largest source of unsubsidized affordable housing, and could play a major role in addressing our affordable housing crisis, but there's a problem. One of our largest sources of affordable housing is also one of our most insecure. Mobile homes are insecure for two reasons which are like two trains heading right for each other. The first reason isn't the home itself; it's the land. About a third of mobile homes are installed in mobile home parks, where residents own the home but rent the land. Now, this is part of what makes the housing so affordable, but it also means that homeowners can be evicted at any time if the property owner decides to sell or redevelop the park. The second reason they're insecure is they're invisible. Think for a second about the mobile home park closest to your house. Some of you can probably picture it. Maybe it's off a highway, behind a strip mall. But many of you might not actually know where the nearest mobile home park is, and that's not by accident. That's by design. For over a century, planning and zoning regulations have required that mobile home parks be walled in, fenced off, and, in the language of planners, visually screened from view. But perhaps the most damning of these regulations comes from laws that don't allow mobile home parks to be established near conventional housing. As a result, mobile home parks are disproportionately located in commercial and industrial areas. So now you can see those two trains about to collide, right? When communities of homeowners that rent the land are isolated onto commercial properties owned by a third party, they're the first victims of urban growth. When a big-box store is looking for a place to build, a mobile home park is an easy target. Mobile home park brokers actually make a living selling off parks for redevelopment. One broker told me that Walmart is his best client. When parks are redeveloped, communities of homeowners who have lived in their homes for decades are evicted with as little as 30 days' notice, and entire communities are dismantled. And this is happening at an alarming rate, right now. We have an affordable housing crisis in this country, yet we are allowing one of our largest sources of affordable housing to disappear. As a sociologist, I wanted to document the effects of these mass evictions, so beginning in 2012, I rented a mobile home inside closing parks, first in Florida and then in Texas. I moved in and lived beside neighbors over 17 consecutive months as they scrambled to deal with their eviction. I then followed them for six more months after they were evicted. This is what I learned. The term "mobile home" is a complete misnomer. Mobile homes are not RVs, they're not campers. They're not intended to be mobile once they're first transported from the factory. Once installed on land, just like any other home, they settle. Moving them can cause serious structural damage and cost up to $15,000, and all of that is if they can be moved. In the parks where I lived, lucky residents lost entire savings and months of their lives dealing with eviction. Unlucky residents lost everything. Their homes were not structurally sound for relocation, and they were forced to abandon them. These residents were real people, like my neighbor Stella. Stella prided herself on being able to live independently at the age of 87. Stella was blind and completely homebound, but her cheap rent and knowing every corner of her mobile home had made that possible. Stella had paid off her home many years ago, but when her park closed, she couldn't afford to move it on her $790 Social Security check. In the end, Stella lost her home of 20 years and her prized independence. She moved into a guest room in her son's apartment. Two blocks over from Stella, Randall meticulously maintained his home. It was the first home he'd ever owned. The first time he had me over, he apologized for it being so messy, but then he later admitted he'd just been scrubbing the cabinets. Randall learned that this home could not be moved, and he desperately searched for housing nearby so he could keep his job. But he found nothing he could afford, even after months. On the day before Randall's park closed, he transitioned from homeowner to homeless, and to this day, he sleeps on a park bench about a mile from where his home once was. When these parks close, residents lose homes but also neighbors and social supports. So Stella lost the neighbors who would come and check on her, and Randall lost the people who could give him a ride when he needed it. Randall and Stella are just two of about 200 evicted homeowners I met during those two years, and while everyone's story is a little different, the common reality is that mobile home park closures create a cycle of housing instability that extends well beyond these moments of eviction, and that affects all of us. Housing instability means that local teachers get an influx of new kids partway through the year. It means social service providers are stretched thin managing new caseloads. It means small businesses lose reliable employees. Zoning communities into invisibility creates housing instability. But more than that, it creates social vulnerability because it's hard to care about what you don't see. But there's hope because over the last century we've solved some of our toughest housing challenges by shining a spotlight on invisible problems. We passed the first progressive tenement housing reforms only after a photojournalist showed the world the unsafe conditions in crowded slums. We passed the Fair Housing Act only after African American Vietnam vets showed us that they'd risked their lives for this country but couldn't buy a home in a white neighborhood. We passed the housing measures in the Americans with Disabilities Act only after activists with disabilities demonstrated that they couldn't fit through a standard entrance and into a home. So perhaps we're primed to bring this next housing challenge into the light. And that starts by working to change some of the very regulations that keep mobile home parks invisible. We're ready for this. I mean, you're already binge-watching "tiny house" shows on HGTV. (Laughter) Your Facebook feed is full of them, you love them, you want to retire in one. So we're ready to push for new policies that better integrate different forms of housing into the fabric of our residential communities. And we're ready to address that underlying land ownership issue too. We already have a model to follow: the condo model, where residents own their unit and hold the condo property collectively. There are parks that have actually tried this and it's working. In about 200 parks across the country, nonprofit groups have helped residents collectively get a loan so that they can buy their park and run it themselves, and residents in these parks report seeing immediate improvements in the maintenance, quality, and stability of their communities. But maybe we can take an even more important step to ensure housing security for everyone. If we can reshape our thinking about the mobile home park, we can go further to imagining housing as a basic human right. The UN and most developed nations recognize and have policies that affirm a human right to housing, for all of the reasons that we've been talking about. It's hard to have health, wealth, and stability if you don't have a roof over your head. Plus, housing insecurity is expensive. It has costs for social services, businesses, schools. Those are costs we all bear, so a dollar spent on housing is a dollar saved on healthcare, infrastructure, and education. Yet the U.S. remains the only developed nation that doesn't guarantee a fundamental human right to shelter, but perhaps it's time to change that. (Applause) So if we want to, then that's going to require enacting legislation and shifting budgetary priorities, absolutely, but we've made just these kind of legislative shifts before. And it turns out that the mobile home park provides a pretty good roadmap for why and how we should do this. Parks show us the value of homeownership for all income levels. Parks even show us how we might imagine new, collective forms of property ownership. And most importantly, parks show us that entire cities can benefit when housing is secure for everyone. Housing is one of our most fundamental human needs and perhaps our biggest blindspot. Let's bring our attention back home so we can create communities that work for all of us. Thank you. (Applause)

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
mobile home 16
affordable housing 10
mobile homes 6
home park 6
home parks 4
housing instability 3
million americans 2
housing crisis 2
largest sources 2
residents lost 2
stella lost 2
fundamental human 2
parks show 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
mobile home park 6
mobile home parks 4
affordable housing crisis 2

Important Words

  1. abandon
  2. absolutely
  3. access
  4. accident
  5. achieved
  6. act
  7. activists
  8. address
  9. addressing
  10. admitted
  11. affects
  12. affirm
  13. afford
  14. affordable
  15. african
  16. age
  17. alarming
  18. allowing
  19. alright
  20. american
  21. americans
  22. apartment
  23. apologized
  24. applause
  25. areas
  26. attention
  27. basic
  28. bear
  29. beginning
  30. begun
  31. bench
  32. benefit
  33. benefits
  34. big
  35. biggest
  36. blind
  37. blindspot
  38. blocks
  39. boston
  40. brand
  41. break
  42. bring
  43. broker
  44. brokers
  45. budget
  46. budgetary
  47. build
  48. building
  49. businesses
  50. buy
  51. cabinets
  52. campers
  53. care
  54. caseloads
  55. century
  56. challenge
  57. challenges
  58. change
  59. cheap
  60. cheapest
  61. check
  62. cheers
  63. cities
  64. client
  65. close
  66. closed
  67. closest
  68. closing
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  70. collective
  71. collectively
  72. collide
  73. commercial
  74. common
  75. communities
  76. complete
  77. completely
  78. conditions
  79. condo
  80. consecutive
  81. conventional
  82. corner
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  84. costs
  85. country
  86. crazy
  87. create
  88. creates
  89. crisis
  90. crowded
  91. cycle
  92. damage
  93. damning
  94. day
  95. deal
  96. dealing
  97. decades
  98. decides
  99. demonstrated
  100. denver
  101. design
  102. desperately
  103. developed
  104. disabilities
  105. disappear
  106. dismantled
  107. disproportionately
  108. document
  109. dollar
  110. dream
  111. easy
  112. education
  113. educational
  114. effects
  115. employees
  116. employment
  117. enacting
  118. ensure
  119. enter
  120. entire
  121. entrance
  122. established
  123. evicted
  124. eviction
  125. evictions
  126. expensive
  127. extends
  128. fabric
  129. facebook
  130. fact
  131. factory
  132. fair
  133. feed
  134. fenced
  135. find
  136. fit
  137. florida
  138. forced
  139. forms
  140. full
  141. fundamental
  142. give
  143. good
  144. groups
  145. growth
  146. guarantee
  147. guest
  148. happening
  149. hard
  150. head
  151. heading
  152. health
  153. healthcare
  154. hear
  155. helped
  156. hgtv
  157. highway
  158. hold
  159. home
  160. homebound
  161. homeless
  162. homeowner
  163. homeowners
  164. homeownership
  165. homes
  166. hope
  167. hoping
  168. house
  169. households
  170. housing
  171. human
  172. hype
  173. imagine
  174. imagining
  175. important
  176. importantly
  177. improvements
  178. income
  179. incredible
  180. independence
  181. independently
  182. industrial
  183. influx
  184. infrastructure
  185. insecure
  186. insecurity
  187. instability
  188. installed
  189. integrate
  190. intended
  191. invisibility
  192. invisible
  193. isolated
  194. issue
  195. job
  196. jump
  197. kids
  198. kind
  199. knowing
  200. lacks
  201. land
  202. language
  203. larger
  204. largest
  205. laughter
  206. laws
  207. learned
  208. legislation
  209. legislative
  210. levels
  211. light
  212. live
  213. lived
  214. lives
  215. living
  216. loan
  217. local
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  219. long
  220. lose
  221. lost
  222. lot
  223. love
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  225. lucky
  226. maintained
  227. maintenance
  228. major
  229. mall
  230. managing
  231. market
  232. mass
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  234. means
  235. measures
  236. meet
  237. messy
  238. met
  239. meticulously
  240. mile
  241. million
  242. millions
  243. minimum
  244. misnomer
  245. mmmm
  246. mobile
  247. model
  248. moments
  249. month
  250. months
  251. move
  252. moved
  253. moving
  254. nation
  255. nations
  256. nearby
  257. nearest
  258. needed
  259. neighbor
  260. neighborhood
  261. neighbors
  262. news
  263. nonprofit
  264. notice
  265. opportunities
  266. opportunity
  267. outcomes
  268. owned
  269. owner
  270. ownership
  271. paid
  272. park
  273. parks
  274. part
  275. partway
  276. party
  277. passed
  278. people
  279. person
  280. photojournalist
  281. picture
  282. place
  283. planners
  284. planning
  285. play
  286. policies
  287. positive
  288. preserve
  289. pretty
  290. prided
  291. primary
  292. primed
  293. principal
  294. priorities
  295. prized
  296. problem
  297. problems
  298. progressive
  299. properties
  300. property
  301. provide
  302. providers
  303. push
  304. put
  305. quality
  306. randall
  307. range
  308. rate
  309. ready
  310. real
  311. reality
  312. reason
  313. reasons
  314. recognize
  315. recognizing
  316. redevelop
  317. redeveloped
  318. redevelopment
  319. reforms
  320. regulations
  321. reliable
  322. relocation
  323. remain
  324. remains
  325. rent
  326. rented
  327. report
  328. require
  329. required
  330. reshape
  331. residential
  332. residents
  333. result
  334. retire
  335. ride
  336. risked
  337. roadmap
  338. role
  339. roof
  340. room
  341. run
  342. rvs
  343. safety
  344. saved
  345. savings
  346. schools
  347. scrambled
  348. screened
  349. scrubbing
  350. searched
  351. secret
  352. secure
  353. security
  354. sell
  355. selling
  356. service
  357. services
  358. settle
  359. shelter
  360. shifting
  361. shifts
  362. shining
  363. short
  364. show
  365. showed
  366. shows
  367. simply
  368. single
  369. sleeps
  370. slums
  371. small
  372. social
  373. sociologist
  374. sociologists
  375. sold
  376. solved
  377. solving
  378. sort
  379. sound
  380. source
  381. sources
  382. spend
  383. spent
  384. spotlight
  385. stability
  386. standard
  387. start
  388. starts
  389. state
  390. statistic
  391. stella
  392. step
  393. store
  394. story
  395. stretched
  396. strip
  397. structural
  398. structurally
  399. study
  400. supports
  401. talking
  402. target
  403. teachers
  404. tenement
  405. term
  406. texas
  407. thin
  408. thinking
  409. time
  410. told
  411. total
  412. totally
  413. toughest
  414. trains
  415. transitioned
  416. translates
  417. transported
  418. turns
  419. unaffordable
  420. underlying
  421. unit
  422. units
  423. unlucky
  424. unsafe
  425. unsubsidized
  426. urban
  427. vets
  428. victims
  429. vietnam
  430. view
  431. visually
  432. vulnerability
  433. wage
  434. walled
  435. walmart
  436. wanted
  437. wealth
  438. white
  439. work
  440. working
  441. world
  442. year
  443. years
  444. zoning