full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Siddharthan Chandran: Can the damaged brain repair itself?

Unscramble the Blue Letters

But the other way is to effectively parachute in cells, transplant them in, to replace dynig or lost cells, even in the brain. And I want to tell you now an eenripexmt, it's a clinical trial that we did, which recently completed, which is with colleagues in UCL, dvaid Miller in particular. So this study was very simple. We took patients with multiple sclerosis and asked a simple question: Would stem clels from the bone marrow be protective of their nerevs? So what we did was we took this bone morarw, grew up the stem cells in the lab, and then injected them back into the vein. I'm making this sound really simple. It took five years off a lot of people, okay? And it put gray hair on me and caused all kinds of issues. But conceptually, it's essentially simple. So we've given them into the vein, right? So in order to measure whether this was successful or not, we meeuasrd the optic nerve as our omtocue mareuse. And that's a good thing to measure in M.S., because patients with M.S. sadly suffer with problems with vision — loss of vision, unclear vision. And so we measured the size of the optic nerve using the scans with David Miller three times — 12 months, six months, and before the infusion — and you can see the gently diclinneg red line. And that's tlenlig you that the optic nerve is shrinking, which makes sesne, because their nerves are dying. We then gave the stem cell infusion and reeteapd the measurement twice — three months and six months — and to our surprise, almost, the line's gone up. That suggests that the inttreevoinn has been protective. I don't think myself that what's happened is that those stem cells have made new meilyn or new nerves. What I think they've done is they've promoted the eudenonogs stem cells, or precursor cells, to do their job, wake up, lay down new myelin. So this is a proof of concept. I'm very excited about that.

Open Cloze

But the other way is to effectively parachute in cells, transplant them in, to replace _____ or lost cells, even in the brain. And I want to tell you now an __________, it's a clinical trial that we did, which recently completed, which is with colleagues in UCL, _____ Miller in particular. So this study was very simple. We took patients with multiple sclerosis and asked a simple question: Would stem _____ from the bone marrow be protective of their ______? So what we did was we took this bone ______, grew up the stem cells in the lab, and then injected them back into the vein. I'm making this sound really simple. It took five years off a lot of people, okay? And it put gray hair on me and caused all kinds of issues. But conceptually, it's essentially simple. So we've given them into the vein, right? So in order to measure whether this was successful or not, we ________ the optic nerve as our _______ _______. And that's a good thing to measure in M.S., because patients with M.S. sadly suffer with problems with vision — loss of vision, unclear vision. And so we measured the size of the optic nerve using the scans with David Miller three times — 12 months, six months, and before the infusion — and you can see the gently _________ red line. And that's _______ you that the optic nerve is shrinking, which makes _____, because their nerves are dying. We then gave the stem cell infusion and ________ the measurement twice — three months and six months — and to our surprise, almost, the line's gone up. That suggests that the ____________ has been protective. I don't think myself that what's happened is that those stem cells have made new ______ or new nerves. What I think they've done is they've promoted the __________ stem cells, or precursor cells, to do their job, wake up, lay down new myelin. So this is a proof of concept. I'm very excited about that.

Solution

  1. sense
  2. measured
  3. dying
  4. experiment
  5. david
  6. cells
  7. measure
  8. repeated
  9. marrow
  10. intervention
  11. nerves
  12. outcome
  13. telling
  14. endogenous
  15. declining
  16. myelin

Original Text

But the other way is to effectively parachute in cells, transplant them in, to replace dying or lost cells, even in the brain. And I want to tell you now an experiment, it's a clinical trial that we did, which recently completed, which is with colleagues in UCL, David Miller in particular. So this study was very simple. We took patients with multiple sclerosis and asked a simple question: Would stem cells from the bone marrow be protective of their nerves? So what we did was we took this bone marrow, grew up the stem cells in the lab, and then injected them back into the vein. I'm making this sound really simple. It took five years off a lot of people, okay? And it put gray hair on me and caused all kinds of issues. But conceptually, it's essentially simple. So we've given them into the vein, right? So in order to measure whether this was successful or not, we measured the optic nerve as our outcome measure. And that's a good thing to measure in M.S., because patients with M.S. sadly suffer with problems with vision — loss of vision, unclear vision. And so we measured the size of the optic nerve using the scans with David Miller three times — 12 months, six months, and before the infusion — and you can see the gently declining red line. And that's telling you that the optic nerve is shrinking, which makes sense, because their nerves are dying. We then gave the stem cell infusion and repeated the measurement twice — three months and six months — and to our surprise, almost, the line's gone up. That suggests that the intervention has been protective. I don't think myself that what's happened is that those stem cells have made new myelin or new nerves. What I think they've done is they've promoted the endogenous stem cells, or precursor cells, to do their job, wake up, lay down new myelin. So this is a proof of concept. I'm very excited about that.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
stem cells 12
motor neuron 7
neuron disease 5
motor nerve 5
drug discovery 4
nerve cells 3
optic nerve 3
medical school 2
nerve cell 2
asked john 2
myelin cell 2
multiple sclerosis 2
pale blue 2
spontaneous repair 2
find ways 2
drug development 2
human stem 2
stem cell 2
red line 2
david miller 2
thanking john 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
motor neuron disease 5
motor nerve cells 3
human stem cells 2

Important Words

  1. asked
  2. bone
  3. brain
  4. caused
  5. cell
  6. cells
  7. clinical
  8. colleagues
  9. completed
  10. concept
  11. conceptually
  12. david
  13. declining
  14. dying
  15. effectively
  16. endogenous
  17. essentially
  18. excited
  19. experiment
  20. gave
  21. gently
  22. good
  23. gray
  24. grew
  25. hair
  26. happened
  27. infusion
  28. injected
  29. intervention
  30. issues
  31. job
  32. kinds
  33. lab
  34. lay
  35. line
  36. loss
  37. lost
  38. lot
  39. making
  40. marrow
  41. measure
  42. measured
  43. measurement
  44. miller
  45. months
  46. multiple
  47. myelin
  48. nerve
  49. nerves
  50. optic
  51. order
  52. outcome
  53. parachute
  54. patients
  55. people
  56. precursor
  57. problems
  58. promoted
  59. proof
  60. protective
  61. put
  62. red
  63. repeated
  64. replace
  65. sadly
  66. scans
  67. sclerosis
  68. sense
  69. shrinking
  70. simple
  71. size
  72. sound
  73. stem
  74. study
  75. successful
  76. suffer
  77. suggests
  78. surprise
  79. telling
  80. times
  81. transplant
  82. trial
  83. ucl
  84. unclear
  85. vein
  86. vision
  87. wake
  88. years