full transcript
#### From the Ted Talk by Alex Gendler: Can you solve the three gods riddle?

## Unscramble the Blue Letters

Created by logician Raymond Smullyan and popularized by his colleague George boloos, this riddle has been called the hardest logic puzzle ever. You and your team have crash-landed on an aecnint planet. The only way off is to appease its three alien overlords, Tee, Eff, and Arr, by giving them the correct artifacts. Unfortunately, you don't know who is who. From an inscription, you laern that you may ask three yes or no qitenosus, each addressed to any one lord. Tee's answers are always true, Eff's are always flsae, and Arr's answer is random each time. But there's a problem. You've deciphered the language enough to ask any question, but you don't know which of the two wrods 'ozo' and 'ulu' means yes and which means no. How can you still figure out which alien is which? Pause here if you want to figure it out for yourself! Answer in: 3 2 1 At first, this puzzle seems not just hard, but downright ilsbspoime. What good is asking a question if you can neither understand the answer nor know if it's true? But it can be done. The key is to carefully formulate our questions so that any answer yields useful information. First of all, we can get around to not knowing what 'ozo' and 'ulu' mean by including the words themselves in the questions, and secondly, if we load each question with a hypothetical cntooidin, whether an alien is lying or not won't actually matter. To see how that could work, iginame our question is whether two plus two is four. Instead of posing it directly, we say, "If I akesd you whether two plus two is four, would you answer 'ozo'?" If 'ozo' means yes and the overlord is Tee, it truthfully replies, "ozo." But what if we ask Eff? Well, it would answer "ulu," or no to the embedded question, so it lies and replies 'ozo' instead. And if 'ozo' actually means no, then the aeswnr to our ebeedmdd question is 'ulu,' and both Tee and Eff still reply 'ozo,' each for their own reasons. If you're confused about why this works, the reason iveonvls logical srturtuce. A double positive and a double negative both result in a ptviiose. Now, we can be sure that asking either Tee or Eff a question put this way will yield 'ozo' if the hoattpyceihl question is true and 'ulu' if it's false regardless of what each word actually means. Unfortunately, this doesn't help us with Arr. But don't worry, we can use our first question to idnitfey one alien lord that definitely isn't Arr. Then we can use the second to find out whether its Tee or Eff. And once we know that, we can ask it to identify one of the others. So let's begin. Ask the alien in the middle, "If I asked you whether the overlord on my left is Arr, would you answer 'ozo'?" If the reply is 'ozo,' there are two possibilities. You could already be talking to Arr, in which case the answer is meaningless. But otherwise, you're talking to either Tee or Eff, and as we know, getting 'ozo' from either one means your hypothetical qsieoutn was croerct, and the left overlord is indeed Arr. Either way, you can be sure the aieln on the right is not Arr. slimarliy, if the answer is 'ulu,' then you know the alien on the left can't be Arr. Now go to the overlord you've determined isn't Arr and ask, "If I asked 'are you Eff?' would you answer 'ozo'?" Since you don't have to worry about the random possibility, either answer will establish its identity. Now that you know whether its answers are true or false, ask the same alien whether the center overlord is Arr. The process of elimination will identify the remaining one. The satisfied overlords help you repair your ship and you prepare for takeoff. Allowed one final question, you ask Tee if it's a long way to Earth, and he answers "ozo." Too bad you still don't know what that means.
## Open Cloze

Created by logician Raymond Smullyan and popularized by his colleague George **______**, this riddle has been called the hardest logic puzzle ever. You and your team have crash-landed on an **_______** planet. The only way off is to appease its three alien overlords, Tee, Eff, and Arr, by giving them the correct artifacts. Unfortunately, you don't know who is who. From an inscription, you **_____** that you may ask three yes or no **_________**, each addressed to any one lord. Tee's answers are always true, Eff's are always **_____**, and Arr's answer is random each time. But there's a problem. You've deciphered the language enough to ask any question, but you don't know which of the two **_____** 'ozo' and 'ulu' means yes and which means no. How can you still figure out which alien is which? Pause here if you want to figure it out for yourself! Answer in: 3 2 1 At first, this puzzle seems not just hard, but downright **__________**. What good is asking a question if you can neither understand the answer nor know if it's true? But it can be done. The key is to carefully formulate our questions so that any answer yields useful information. First of all, we can get around to not knowing what 'ozo' and 'ulu' mean by including the words themselves in the questions, and secondly, if we load each question with a hypothetical **_________**, whether an alien is lying or not won't actually matter. To see how that could work, **_______** our question is whether two plus two is four. Instead of posing it directly, we say, "If I **_____** you whether two plus two is four, would you answer 'ozo'?" If 'ozo' means yes and the overlord is Tee, it truthfully replies, "ozo." But what if we ask Eff? Well, it would answer "ulu," or no to the embedded question, so it lies and replies 'ozo' instead. And if 'ozo' actually means no, then the **______** to our **________** question is 'ulu,' and both Tee and Eff still reply 'ozo,' each for their own reasons. If you're confused about why this works, the reason **________** logical **_________**. A double positive and a double negative both result in a **________**. Now, we can be sure that asking either Tee or Eff a question put this way will yield 'ozo' if the **____________** question is true and 'ulu' if it's false regardless of what each word actually means. Unfortunately, this doesn't help us with Arr. But don't worry, we can use our first question to **________** one alien lord that definitely isn't Arr. Then we can use the second to find out whether its Tee or Eff. And once we know that, we can ask it to identify one of the others. So let's begin. Ask the alien in the middle, "If I asked you whether the overlord on my left is Arr, would you answer 'ozo'?" If the reply is 'ozo,' there are two possibilities. You could already be talking to Arr, in which case the answer is meaningless. But otherwise, you're talking to either Tee or Eff, and as we know, getting 'ozo' from either one means your hypothetical **________** was **_______**, and the left overlord is indeed Arr. Either way, you can be sure the **_____** on the right is not Arr. **_________**, if the answer is 'ulu,' then you know the alien on the left can't be Arr. Now go to the overlord you've determined isn't Arr and ask, "If I asked 'are you Eff?' would you answer 'ozo'?" Since you don't have to worry about the random possibility, either answer will establish its identity. Now that you know whether its answers are true or false, ask the same alien whether the center overlord is Arr. The process of elimination will identify the remaining one. The satisfied overlords help you repair your ship and you prepare for takeoff. Allowed one final question, you ask Tee if it's a long way to Earth, and he answers "ozo." Too bad you still don't know what that means.
## Solution

- involves
- question
- questions
- hypothetical
- correct
- boolos
- asked
- impossible
- answer
- condition
- embedded
- alien
- positive
- learn
- words
- imagine
- false
- ancient
- similarly
- identify
- structure

## Original Text

Created by logician Raymond Smullyan and popularized by his colleague George Boolos, this riddle has been called the hardest logic puzzle ever. You and your team have crash-landed on an ancient planet. The only way off is to appease its three alien overlords, Tee, Eff, and Arr, by giving them the correct artifacts. Unfortunately, you don't know who is who. From an inscription, you learn that you may ask three yes or no questions, each addressed to any one lord. Tee's answers are always true, Eff's are always false, and Arr's answer is random each time. But there's a problem. You've deciphered the language enough to ask any question, but you don't know which of the two words 'ozo' and 'ulu' means yes and which means no. How can you still figure out which alien is which? Pause here if you want to figure it out for yourself! Answer in: 3 2 1 At first, this puzzle seems not just hard, but downright impossible. What good is asking a question if you can neither understand the answer nor know if it's true? But it can be done. The key is to carefully formulate our questions so that any answer yields useful information. First of all, we can get around to not knowing what 'ozo' and 'ulu' mean by including the words themselves in the questions, and secondly, if we load each question with a hypothetical condition, whether an alien is lying or not won't actually matter. To see how that could work, imagine our question is whether two plus two is four. Instead of posing it directly, we say, "If I asked you whether two plus two is four, would you answer 'ozo'?" If 'ozo' means yes and the overlord is Tee, it truthfully replies, "ozo." But what if we ask Eff? Well, it would answer "ulu," or no to the embedded question, so it lies and replies 'ozo' instead. And if 'ozo' actually means no, then the answer to our embedded question is 'ulu,' and both Tee and Eff still reply 'ozo,' each for their own reasons. If you're confused about why this works, the reason involves logical structure. A double positive and a double negative both result in a positive. Now, we can be sure that asking either Tee or Eff a question put this way will yield 'ozo' if the hypothetical question is true and 'ulu' if it's false regardless of what each word actually means. Unfortunately, this doesn't help us with Arr. But don't worry, we can use our first question to identify one alien lord that definitely isn't Arr. Then we can use the second to find out whether its Tee or Eff. And once we know that, we can ask it to identify one of the others. So let's begin. Ask the alien in the middle, "If I asked you whether the overlord on my left is Arr, would you answer 'ozo'?" If the reply is 'ozo,' there are two possibilities. You could already be talking to Arr, in which case the answer is meaningless. But otherwise, you're talking to either Tee or Eff, and as we know, getting 'ozo' from either one means your hypothetical question was correct, and the left overlord is indeed Arr. Either way, you can be sure the alien on the right is not Arr. Similarly, if the answer is 'ulu,' then you know the alien on the left can't be Arr. Now go to the overlord you've determined isn't Arr and ask, "If I asked 'are you Eff?' would you answer 'ozo'?" Since you don't have to worry about the random possibility, either answer will establish its identity. Now that you know whether its answers are true or false, ask the same alien whether the center overlord is Arr. The process of elimination will identify the remaining one. The satisfied overlords help you repair your ship and you prepare for takeoff. Allowed one final question, you ask Tee if it's a long way to Earth, and he answers "ozo." Too bad you still don't know what that means.
## Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

### ngrams of length 2

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hypothetical question |
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## Important Words

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