full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Prosanta Chakrabarty: Clues to prehistoric times, found in blind cavefish

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Its closest relatives are cavefishes in Kentucky, in the Mammoth Cave system. And they start to dgrivee when the Ohio River split them a few million years ago. And in that time they developed these subtle differences in the genetic aihutrctrcee behind their blindness. There's this gene cllaed rhodopsin that's super-critical for sight. We have it, and these scepies have it too, except one species has lost all function in that gene, and the other one maintains it. So this sets up this beautiful natural expnreemit where we can look at the genes behind our vision, and at the very roots of how we can see.

Open Cloze

Its closest relatives are cavefishes in Kentucky, in the Mammoth Cave system. And they start to _______ when the Ohio River split them a few million years ago. And in that time they developed these subtle differences in the genetic ____________ behind their blindness. There's this gene ______ rhodopsin that's super-critical for sight. We have it, and these _______ have it too, except one species has lost all function in that gene, and the other one maintains it. So this sets up this beautiful natural __________ where we can look at the genes behind our vision, and at the very roots of how we can see.

Solution

  1. experiment
  2. architecture
  3. diverge
  4. called
  5. species

Original Text

Its closest relatives are cavefishes in Kentucky, in the Mammoth Cave system. And they start to diverge when the Ohio River split them a few million years ago. And in that time they developed these subtle differences in the genetic architecture behind their blindness. There's this gene called rhodopsin that's super-critical for sight. We have it, and these species have it too, except one species has lost all function in that gene, and the other one maintains it. So this sets up this beautiful natural experiment where we can look at the genes behind our vision, and at the very roots of how we can see.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
cavefish species 2
closest relatives 2
cave system 2

Important Words

  1. architecture
  2. beautiful
  3. blindness
  4. called
  5. cave
  6. cavefishes
  7. closest
  8. developed
  9. differences
  10. diverge
  11. experiment
  12. function
  13. gene
  14. genes
  15. genetic
  16. kentucky
  17. lost
  18. maintains
  19. mammoth
  20. million
  21. natural
  22. ohio
  23. relatives
  24. rhodopsin
  25. river
  26. roots
  27. sets
  28. sight
  29. species
  30. split
  31. start
  32. subtle
  33. system
  34. time
  35. vision
  36. years