full transcript
"From the Ted Talk by Rob Dunbar: Discovering ancient climates in oceans and ice"

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Now the reason we know it's 1584 is that these cloars have growth bdnas. When you cut them, slice those cores in half and x-ray them, you see these light and dark bands. Each one of those is a year. We know these corals grow about a centimeter and a half a year. And we just count on down to the bottom. Then their other attribute is that they have this great chemistry. We can analyze the carbonate that makes up the coral, and there's a whole bunch of things we can do. But in this case, we measured the different isotopes of oexgyn. Their ratio tells us the water temperature. In this example here, we had monitored this reef in Galapagos with temperature recorders, so we know the temperature of the water the coral's growing in. Then after we harvest a coral, we measure this ritao, and now you can see, those ceurvs macth pltrefecy.

Open Cloze

Now the reason we know it's 1584 is that these ______ have growth _____. When you cut them, slice those cores in half and x-ray them, you see these light and dark bands. Each one of those is a year. We know these corals grow about a centimeter and a half a year. And we just count on down to the bottom. Then their other attribute is that they have this great chemistry. We can analyze the carbonate that makes up the coral, and there's a whole bunch of things we can do. But in this case, we measured the different isotopes of ______. Their ratio tells us the water temperature. In this example here, we had monitored this reef in Galapagos with temperature recorders, so we know the temperature of the water the coral's growing in. Then after we harvest a coral, we measure this _____, and now you can see, those ______ _____ _________.

Solution

  1. ratio
  2. oxygen
  3. bands
  4. curves
  5. corals
  6. perfectly
  7. match

Original Text

Now the reason we know it's 1584 is that these corals have growth bands. When you cut them, slice those cores in half and x-ray them, you see these light and dark bands. Each one of those is a year. We know these corals grow about a centimeter and a half a year. And we just count on down to the bottom. Then their other attribute is that they have this great chemistry. We can analyze the carbonate that makes up the coral, and there's a whole bunch of things we can do. But in this case, we measured the different isotopes of oxygen. Their ratio tells us the water temperature. In this example here, we had monitored this reef in Galapagos with temperature recorders, so we know the temperature of the water the coral's growing in. Then after we harvest a coral, we measure this ratio, and now you can see, those curves match perfectly.

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
sea level 6
ice shelf 6
ice sheet 5
climate change 5
ocean acidification 4
million years 4
el ninos 4
el nino 4
carbon dioxide 4
west antarctica 3
ross sea 3
natural variability 3
global warming 3
floating ice 3

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
floating ice shelf 3

Important Words

  1. analyze
  2. attribute
  3. bands
  4. bottom
  5. bunch
  6. carbonate
  7. case
  8. centimeter
  9. chemistry
  10. coral
  11. corals
  12. cores
  13. count
  14. curves
  15. cut
  16. dark
  17. galapagos
  18. great
  19. grow
  20. growing
  21. growth
  22. harvest
  23. isotopes
  24. light
  25. match
  26. measure
  27. measured
  28. monitored
  29. oxygen
  30. perfectly
  31. ratio
  32. reason
  33. recorders
  34. reef
  35. slice
  36. tells
  37. temperature
  38. water
  39. year