full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Rob Dunbar: Discovering ancient climates in oceans and ice

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Okay, the second story takes place here in Galapagos. This is a bleached coral, coral that died during the 1982-'83 El Nino. This is from Champion Island. It's about a meter tall Pavona clavus cnoloy. And it's covered with algae. That's what happens. When these things die, ilidemeatmy, osmgarins come in and encrust and live on that dead sfaurce. And so, when a caorl colony is killed by an El Nino event, it leaves this indelible record. You can go then and study corals and furige out how often do you see this. So one of the things thought of in the '80s was to go back and take cores of coral heads throughout the Galapagos and find out how often was there a devastating event. And just so you know, 1982-'83, that El Nino killed 95 percent of all the corals here in gogaapals. Then there was similar mortality in '97-'98. And what we found after drilling back in time two to 400 years was that these were unique events. We saw no other mass mortality events. So these evetns in our recent past really are unique. So they're either just truly monster El Ninos, or they're just very strong El Ninos that occurred against a bcakodrp of global wmanrig. Either case, it's bad news for the corals of the Galapagos Islands.

Open Cloze

Okay, the second story takes place here in Galapagos. This is a bleached coral, coral that died during the 1982-'83 El Nino. This is from Champion Island. It's about a meter tall Pavona clavus ______. And it's covered with algae. That's what happens. When these things die, ___________, _________ come in and encrust and live on that dead _______. And so, when a _____ colony is killed by an El Nino event, it leaves this indelible record. You can go then and study corals and ______ out how often do you see this. So one of the things thought of in the '80s was to go back and take cores of coral heads throughout the Galapagos and find out how often was there a devastating event. And just so you know, 1982-'83, that El Nino killed 95 percent of all the corals here in _________. Then there was similar mortality in '97-'98. And what we found after drilling back in time two to 400 years was that these were unique events. We saw no other mass mortality events. So these ______ in our recent past really are unique. So they're either just truly monster El Ninos, or they're just very strong El Ninos that occurred against a ________ of global _______. Either case, it's bad news for the corals of the Galapagos Islands.

Solution

  1. immediately
  2. backdrop
  3. warming
  4. galapagos
  5. coral
  6. surface
  7. organisms
  8. events
  9. figure
  10. colony

Original Text

Okay, the second story takes place here in Galapagos. This is a bleached coral, coral that died during the 1982-'83 El Nino. This is from Champion Island. It's about a meter tall Pavona clavus colony. And it's covered with algae. That's what happens. When these things die, immediately, organisms come in and encrust and live on that dead surface. And so, when a coral colony is killed by an El Nino event, it leaves this indelible record. You can go then and study corals and figure out how often do you see this. So one of the things thought of in the '80s was to go back and take cores of coral heads throughout the Galapagos and find out how often was there a devastating event. And just so you know, 1982-'83, that El Nino killed 95 percent of all the corals here in Galapagos. Then there was similar mortality in '97-'98. And what we found after drilling back in time two to 400 years was that these were unique events. We saw no other mass mortality events. So these events in our recent past really are unique. So they're either just truly monster El Ninos, or they're just very strong El Ninos that occurred against a backdrop of global warming. Either case, it's bad news for the corals of the Galapagos Islands.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
sea level 5
ice shelf 5
climate change 4
ocean acidification 4
el nino 4
ice sheet 4
million years 4
carbon dioxide 3
el ninos 3
natural variability 3
floating ice 3
ross sea 3
global warming 3
bore hole 2
west antarctica 2
sea floor 2
level rises 2
west antarctic 2
antarctic ice 2
planet warmed 2
galapagos islands 2
thousand years 2
degree centigrade 2
calcium carbonate 2
main framework 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
floating ice shelf 3
sea level rises 2
west antarctic ice 2

Important Words

  1. algae
  2. backdrop
  3. bad
  4. bleached
  5. case
  6. champion
  7. clavus
  8. colony
  9. coral
  10. corals
  11. cores
  12. covered
  13. dead
  14. devastating
  15. die
  16. died
  17. drilling
  18. el
  19. encrust
  20. event
  21. events
  22. figure
  23. find
  24. galapagos
  25. global
  26. heads
  27. immediately
  28. indelible
  29. island
  30. islands
  31. killed
  32. leaves
  33. live
  34. mass
  35. meter
  36. monster
  37. mortality
  38. news
  39. nino
  40. ninos
  41. occurred
  42. organisms
  43. pavona
  44. percent
  45. place
  46. record
  47. similar
  48. story
  49. strong
  50. study
  51. surface
  52. takes
  53. tall
  54. thought
  55. time
  56. unique
  57. warming
  58. years