full transcript
"From the Ted Talk by Sean Carroll: Distant time and the hint of a multiverse"

#### Unscramble the Blue Letters

In the 1970s, Stephen Hawking told us that a black hole, even though you think it's black, it actually eimts radiation when you take into accuont quantum mechanics. The cvutrraue of space-time around the black hole brings to life the quantum mechanical fluctuation, and the black hole radiates. A precisely similar calculation by Hawking and Gary Gibbons showed that if you have dark energy in empty space, then the whole universe rdeaitas. The enegry of emtpy space brings to life quantum fluctuations. And so even though the uinervse will last forever, and oridanry matter and radiation will dilute away, there will always be some radiation, some thermal fluctuations, even in empty space. So what this means is that the universe is like a box of gas that latss forever. Well what is the implication of that?

#### Open Cloze

In the 1970s, Stephen Hawking told us that a black hole, even though you think it's black, it actually **_____** radiation when you take into **_______** quantum mechanics. The **_________** of space-time around the black hole brings to life the quantum mechanical fluctuation, and the black hole radiates. A precisely similar calculation by Hawking and Gary Gibbons showed that if you have dark energy in empty space, then the whole universe **________**. The **______** of **_____** space brings to life quantum fluctuations. And so even though the **________** will last forever, and **________** matter and radiation will dilute away, there will always be some radiation, some thermal fluctuations, even in empty space. So what this means is that the universe is like a box of gas that **_____** forever. Well what is the implication of that?

#### Solution

- radiates
- universe
- empty
- energy
- ordinary
- lasts
- curvature
- account
- emits

#### Original Text

In the 1970s, Stephen Hawking told us that a black hole, even though you think it's black, it actually emits radiation when you take into account quantum mechanics. The curvature of space-time around the black hole brings to life the quantum mechanical fluctuation, and the black hole radiates. A precisely similar calculation by Hawking and Gary Gibbons showed that if you have dark energy in empty space, then the whole universe radiates. The energy of empty space brings to life quantum fluctuations. And so even though the universe will last forever, and ordinary matter and radiation will dilute away, there will always be some radiation, some thermal fluctuations, even in empty space. So what this means is that the universe is like a box of gas that lasts forever. Well what is the implication of that?
#### ngrams of length 2

collocation |
frequency |

empty space |
10 |

big bang |
8 |

dark energy |
6 |

early universe |
5 |

high entropy |
5 |

billion galaxies |
4 |

early times |
4 |

black hole |
4 |

entropy increases |
4 |

billion years |
4 |

apple pie |
4 |

billion stars |
3 |

entropy configuration |
3 |

thermal equilibrium |
3 |

black holes |
3 |

#### Important Words

- account
- black
- box
- brings
- calculation
- curvature
- dark
- dilute
- emits
- empty
- energy
- fluctuation
- fluctuations
- gary
- gas
- gibbons
- hawking
- hole
- implication
- lasts
- life
- matter
- means
- mechanical
- mechanics
- ordinary
- precisely
- quantum
- radiates
- radiation
- showed
- similar
- space
- stephen
- thermal
- told
- universe