full transcript
"From the Ted Talk by Sean Carroll: Distant time and the hint of a multiverse"

#### Unscramble the Blue Letters

Well if that's true, Boltzmann then goes onto invent two very modern-sounding ideas — the multiverse and the ahrnpoitc principle. He says, the problem with thermal equilibrium is that we can't live there. Remember, life itself depends on the arrow of time. We would not be able to pscreos information, metabolize, walk and talk, if we lived in thermal equilibrium. So if you imagine a very, very big universe, an infinitely big universe, with randomly bimpnug into each other particles, there will occasionally be small fluctuations in the lower eorpnty states, and then they realx back. But there will also be large fluctuations. Occasionally, you will make a planet or a star or a gaaxly or a hundred billion galxeais. So Boltzmann says, we will only live in the part of the multiverse, in the part of this infinitely big set of fluctuating particles, where life is possible. That's the region where entropy is low. Maybe our ursvinee is just one of those things that happens from time to time.

#### Open Cloze

Well if that's true, Boltzmann then goes onto invent two very modern-sounding ideas — the multiverse and the _________ principle. He says, the problem with thermal equilibrium is that we can't live there. Remember, life itself depends on the arrow of time. We would not be able to _______ information, metabolize, walk and talk, if we lived in thermal equilibrium. So if you imagine a very, very big universe, an infinitely big universe, with randomly _______ into each other particles, there will occasionally be small fluctuations in the lower _______ states, and then they _____ back. But there will also be large fluctuations. Occasionally, you will make a planet or a star or a ______ or a hundred billion ________. So Boltzmann says, we will only live in the part of the multiverse, in the part of this infinitely big set of fluctuating particles, where life is possible. That's the region where entropy is low. Maybe our ________ is just one of those things that happens from time to time.

1. relax
2. process
3. universe
4. galaxies
5. entropy
6. anthropic
7. bumping
8. galaxy

#### Original Text

Well if that's true, Boltzmann then goes onto invent two very modern-sounding ideas — the multiverse and the anthropic principle. He says, the problem with thermal equilibrium is that we can't live there. Remember, life itself depends on the arrow of time. We would not be able to process information, metabolize, walk and talk, if we lived in thermal equilibrium. So if you imagine a very, very big universe, an infinitely big universe, with randomly bumping into each other particles, there will occasionally be small fluctuations in the lower entropy states, and then they relax back. But there will also be large fluctuations. Occasionally, you will make a planet or a star or a galaxy or a hundred billion galaxies. So Boltzmann says, we will only live in the part of the multiverse, in the part of this infinitely big set of fluctuating particles, where life is possible. That's the region where entropy is low. Maybe our universe is just one of those things that happens from time to time.

#### ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
empty space 10
big bang 8
dark energy 6
high entropy 5
early universe 5
entropy increases 4
early times 4
black hole 4
billion years 4
billion galaxies 4
apple pie 4
thermal equilibrium 3
entropy configuration 3
black holes 3
billion stars 3

#### Important Words

1. anthropic
2. arrow
3. big
4. billion
5. boltzmann
6. bumping
7. depends
8. entropy
9. equilibrium
10. fluctuating
11. fluctuations
12. galaxies
13. galaxy
14. ideas
15. imagine
16. infinitely
17. information
18. invent
19. large
20. life
21. live
22. lived
23. metabolize
24. multiverse
25. occasionally
26. part
27. particles
28. planet
29. principle
30. problem
31. process
32. randomly
33. region
34. relax
35. remember
36. set
37. small
38. star
39. states
40. talk
41. thermal
42. time
43. true
44. universe
45. walk