full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Gaspard Koenig: Do we really own our bodies?

Unscramble the Blue Letters

I'd like to start by sohniwg you someone who is dressed even worse than I am. [Who is this?] You may notice, aside from the color harmony, a tattoo saying: "My body belongs to me." But who is this person? Is it a punk, who borrowed clothes from their grandmother's woabdrre? Is it a teenager, from the 16th arrondissement of Paris, who feels like rebelling? No. This is our Minister of Health, Marisol Touraine, standing on the steps of the Élysée. And this was last year, to celebrate the 40th year of the Veil aotoirbn Act, which enables women to take coorntl of their bodies, through a voluntary interruption of their pregnancy. "My body belongs to me" has become banal — everyone says it. By the way, for once, the entire National Assembly has voted in favor of a symbolic law in order to reapprove the Veil Law. It's a banality, even ministers have it tattooed on their arm. However, it's not entirely true. I would like to give you a few examples, that are a little extreme, honestly even shickong, which will demonstrate that for many ppleoe and in a lot of cases, well, my body doesn't belong to me. Firstly, it doesn't belong to me as long as I'm alvie. I am not allowed to rent my belly. I am not allowed in many countries to sell my sexuality. I am not allowed to define the gender that I bneolg to, since I have to face a doctor or be in front of a judge, and dlraece to the civil riesrtagr whether I am a man, woman, or other. I am also not allowed to do whatever I want with my body. For instance, I can't do this. [Dwarf-tossing] So, You might recognize Leonardo Di carpio, in this great dwarf-tossing scene. But some versions of it exist that are a little less chic, notably the one that was practiced by the geart community of Morsang-sur-Orge from l'Essonne, in the beginning of the 90s. The moayr of Morsang-sur-Orge said: "This can't go on — we can't toss dwarfs."” And so he prohibited dwarf-tossing. And who was to protest? Dwarf-tossers found other activities to do on Sundays. They probably went back to fiinshg. It's the dwarves themselves who protested, because they had a breadwinner, and a certain renown, apparently a certain suscecs with women. And the Morsang-sur-Orges Council of State's decision, which jsutirs know well, said: "No, this is fdbeidron." I also cannot do whatever I want with my body in oderr to die. I am not allowed to be eieunhzatd, but I am also not allowed to be eaten. In 2001, a charming German engineer posted an announcement saying: "I am looking for a volunteer to eat." He received several candidates, made a secoelitn, conducted a few fianl interviews, and in the end finally found Bernt, who agreed wholeheartedly. So they began by ctuintg off Bernt's genital and eating it together, probably by cneaihlldgt. (Laughter) Obviously satisfied by this first course, they chsoe to proceed — and by the way this all on video so you can watch it. I recommend it to you, it's really nice — "Armine ate Bernt." But be aware that this is prohibited. It's crazy, considering they haven't hurt anyone. But it is indeed prohibited to be eaten. Well, even after my death I can't do whatever I want with my body. For instance, I am not allowed to practice sea-immersion whereas diving is allowed while I am alive. I am also not aowlled to be embalmed, unless my name is Lenin, Mao, or vrlaéy Giscard d'Estaing. (Laughter) (Applause) And I am also not allowed — and this is even worse — to be cryogenized. You know, some people — have themselves frozen, hoping that in 10 years, 100 years, or a million years, we would defrost them, as by then we will have already found ways to resuscitate them, or found crues to the isselelns that have killed them. This has been somewhat a success. In Russia and the United States, there are some cryogenic setis, where one can see the coffins. Some put their eirnte body, while others only their head — it's cepaehr. (laughter) And in France, a doctor neamd maertainu, felt that it was a great idea to ferzee his wife first. (Laughter) And as it seemed to be going well, he decided to follow her with the freezing. Forever united in a frozen sleep, inside a castle. And then someone found out and filed a complaint: There are some people frozen in the village, do you realize that?” (Laughter) Their son was dehgeiltd. He would go to see them from time to time. It's better than gtharieng around a garve. And the Council of State, that same one, said: "This can't be happening. You need to defrost and burn them! Put it all on fire. Then there was a trial, and Martineau's son was foecrd to burn his parents. Can you imagine, this poor couple who imagined being united for molnilis of yaers and resuscitate in a future where sutelxaiy is completely open, completely vivified and reeunjteavd. Well, unfortunately, there is only a heap of ashes left. (Laughter) So behind these tragedies — they don't concern us all if we don't wish to be eaten, frozen, or tossed — who caers. But the problem is that it actually applies to each one of us. It's the Civil Code via the bioethics law of 1994 that says so. The conventions — as you can read — are that there is no private ownership or patrimoniality over the body, because we say that the person is uvbiaalalne under law. And so the body itself isn't patrimonial. You don't have an ownership of your body. And so you might tell me: "So what, everything in fncrae is forbidden anyway." (Laughter) But even in the US, a country supposedly lbiaerl, it's the same sroty. It has, by the way, been declared very clearly at a trial in the Supreme Court of California. The John Moore case. John mrooe was a patient suffering from leukemia, in the 80s, and the doctors had to remove his spleen. They discovered that his clles had extraordinary properties for producing certain kind of proteins. So the doctors exrctated, without telilng John Moore, many of his cells. They extracted blood, sperm, and parts of the spinal cord. They apnelparty told him that in order to treat his leukemia they had to remove some sperm — that's apparently what happened. (Laughter) And they made a cell line out of it. John Moore's cell line. Which they then sold for hundreds of thousands of dollars to big pharmaceutical institutions. And John Moore, upon realizing what has happened, said: "Wait a minute, I don't get to have a say? These are my cells, if you don't mind." And so there was a big trial, and the jgude concluded that, no, they aren't his cells in fact, given that he doesn't have ownership over his cells. So, where does all of this come from? There are good reasons to think that it came from a monotheistic hteirage. This idea — as Saint Paul put it: "The body is for the Lord and the Lord is for the body." — is that in the big monotheism, particularly within Judeo-Christian rngoiiels, my body doesn't belong to me because it belongs to God. My body is the expression of the soul, as per Thomas d'Aquin. The body is the roeeltcifn of my soul, my soul is immortal. It jions the kiodngm of heaven. By the way, I can even be resuscitated if the Council of State hasn't burned me first. (Laughter) Pope Pie XII has claimed it very explicitly — this is the first time I'm qnutiog Pope Pie XII publicly. In 1954, at a medical congress, he explained that Man is merely a usufructuary of his body, not its full owner. So within our sucelar law system, a szeialuercd system, it is not a matter of God anymore, well the concept of God has been replaced by the concept of dignity. Going back to that trial in Morsang-sur-Orge, this is the reason why the Council of State has prohibited dwarf-tossing, because a huamn being's dignity is veweid as being part of the pbuilc order. It means that today, this transcendence we have abolished, this divine transcendence, is being rteaekn by the State, or by society if you prefer, defining everyone's dignity. So dignity is sacredness without God. It's the idea that, nonetheless, the body is seracd. We cannot do whatever we want with it. I suggest that you try and go to the end of the mioterdny logic. And if we are really, completely within immncneae, to whom does the body belong, if not to me? Who can dinefe its dignity, if not me? That's what John Lock did, not John Moore, but John Locke. Indeed, there are many Johns. He was the first person to have written, to my klgwenode, that each person has ownership over their own personhood. It's not a coincidence that he is the one who wotre that, He was a doctor, and well-acquainted with fselh, the body's reactions. And also because he was in the midst of the glorious British revolution, the Bill of rigths Revolution. So this whole tohrey about social contract rights, about eaetelnmry, fundamental rights, about civil disobedience, also means that one has natural rights that are preedrmneetid among which, the right of ownership of oneself. He went even further by saying: "If can have ownership over exterior things, if I can acquire the world by working on it, by adding value to it," — this idea of perotpry was first born out of the appropriation of myself. And think about it, if we have ownership over the body, we have, according to classical themes, the usus, fuucrts and abusus. Usus means — it's always nice using Latin tmres — usus menas usage. So if I have usus over the body, the dwarfs can do their work with dignity. Then, fructus, we have it fructified and so John Moore can have access to his cell money. And then you have abusus, I can absue it and do whatever I want with it, and if I want to have it cryogenized, that's my pberolm. It appears to me that this new generation is a generation that rejects predetermined structures, one that wants to define their own career, that wants to define their life by traveling, and to build themselves, their own self, be their own creator. And we can see, aecadnltoly, soalcililcoogy, to what extent this generation who appropriates their own body with tattoos for instance, It's also a way to define one's sexuality in a much more fluid way. There is a study that came out which swohed that gaioeenrtn Z - it's not even Y anymore, it's Z — Generation Z is post-gender. It's not even bi amoryne, everyone defines their own sexuality by adding a little bit of this or that. So this results in many things. For instance, one can be half-sexual, Grey-sexual, gyno-sexual, pan-sexual, Strauss-Kahn sexual — No, not that. Anyway, there are many versions. I don't know all of them, and can't describe them on stage. But it's interesting, you should look them up. And more importantly, it will allow us to tackle the three big tmhees of the future: The subject of human augmentation, the enhancement of oneself, the tmhee of transhumanism, and the theme of data. If tomorrow I can, and I already can enhance myself, that's to say building my own artificial arms, enhancing my limbs, enhancing my brian abilities, even modifying my own DNA. If I modify my own DNA, I must be its owner. If tomorrow I want to test, I want to explore immortality, be it through cryogenisation — here is that nice example again. Or for ianctnse, as Ray Kurzweil, the Pope of transhumanism, envisions it, by transferring my consciousness onto a USB key. Well, similarly, I am going to define, even contractually, the way in which my body relates to the wlord. And then there is a third question that might seem a little marginal, the question of data. We produce, a lagre amount of data, and its value is humongous. as in Europe, it's estimated be worth a taounshd billion euros by 2020. However, this data, which is worth so much money and with which some companies make so much money, well, your personal data doesn't belong to you. In the same way there isn't a patrimoniality of the body, there isn't a poialminiattry of data. For the exact same reasons, because data is ceisndreod to be an expression of your personality, and as we saw, within the law, the personality is inalienable and the body isn't patrimonial. If tomorrow we find, that we are able to build a private property for data, which will be to the digital age what ietcetunllal property was to the industrial revolution, you will then become an owner, in truly legal and financial terms, of your own data, which you will be able to negotiate. In other words: you will finally get paid for using Facebook. So, "my body bnogels to me" isn't a pdlatutie. It's a tttaoo we would finally all wear. Because this brand new generation will have to confront all these problems. Transhumanism is coming, bioethical committees are already outdated. And in order for everyone to able to choose their own values, in this complex universe, we must first own our own bodies. Thank you!

Open Cloze

I'd like to start by _______ you someone who is dressed even worse than I am. [Who is this?] You may notice, aside from the color harmony, a tattoo saying: "My body belongs to me." But who is this person? Is it a punk, who borrowed clothes from their grandmother's ________? Is it a teenager, from the 16th arrondissement of Paris, who feels like rebelling? No. This is our Minister of Health, Marisol Touraine, standing on the steps of the Élysée. And this was last year, to celebrate the 40th year of the Veil ________ Act, which enables women to take _______ of their bodies, through a voluntary interruption of their pregnancy. "My body belongs to me" has become banal — everyone says it. By the way, for once, the entire National Assembly has voted in favor of a symbolic law in order to reapprove the Veil Law. It's a banality, even ministers have it tattooed on their arm. However, it's not entirely true. I would like to give you a few examples, that are a little extreme, honestly even ________, which will demonstrate that for many ______ and in a lot of cases, well, my body doesn't belong to me. Firstly, it doesn't belong to me as long as I'm _____. I am not allowed to rent my belly. I am not allowed in many countries to sell my sexuality. I am not allowed to define the gender that I ______ to, since I have to face a doctor or be in front of a judge, and _______ to the civil _________ whether I am a man, woman, or other. I am also not allowed to do whatever I want with my body. For instance, I can't do this. [Dwarf-tossing] So, You might recognize Leonardo Di ______, in this great dwarf-tossing scene. But some versions of it exist that are a little less chic, notably the one that was practiced by the _____ community of Morsang-sur-Orge from l'Essonne, in the beginning of the 90s. The _____ of Morsang-sur-Orge said: "This can't go on — we can't toss dwarfs."” And so he prohibited dwarf-tossing. And who was to protest? Dwarf-tossers found other activities to do on Sundays. They probably went back to _______. It's the dwarves themselves who protested, because they had a breadwinner, and a certain renown, apparently a certain _______ with women. And the Morsang-sur-Orges Council of State's decision, which _______ know well, said: "No, this is _________." I also cannot do whatever I want with my body in _____ to die. I am not allowed to be __________, but I am also not allowed to be eaten. In 2001, a charming German engineer posted an announcement saying: "I am looking for a volunteer to eat." He received several candidates, made a _________, conducted a few _____ interviews, and in the end finally found Bernt, who agreed wholeheartedly. So they began by _______ off Bernt's genital and eating it together, probably by ___________. (Laughter) Obviously satisfied by this first course, they _____ to proceed — and by the way this all on video so you can watch it. I recommend it to you, it's really nice — "Armine ate Bernt." But be aware that this is prohibited. It's crazy, considering they haven't hurt anyone. But it is indeed prohibited to be eaten. Well, even after my death I can't do whatever I want with my body. For instance, I am not allowed to practice sea-immersion whereas diving is allowed while I am alive. I am also not _______ to be embalmed, unless my name is Lenin, Mao, or ______ Giscard d'Estaing. (Laughter) (Applause) And I am also not allowed — and this is even worse — to be cryogenized. You know, some people — have themselves frozen, hoping that in 10 years, 100 years, or a million years, we would defrost them, as by then we will have already found ways to resuscitate them, or found _____ to the _________ that have killed them. This has been somewhat a success. In Russia and the United States, there are some cryogenic _____, where one can see the coffins. Some put their ______ body, while others only their head — it's _______. (laughter) And in France, a doctor _____ _________, felt that it was a great idea to ______ his wife first. (Laughter) And as it seemed to be going well, he decided to follow her with the freezing. Forever united in a frozen sleep, inside a castle. And then someone found out and filed a complaint: There are some people frozen in the village, do you realize that?” (Laughter) Their son was _________. He would go to see them from time to time. It's better than _________ around a _____. And the Council of State, that same one, said: "This can't be happening. You need to defrost and burn them! Put it all on fire. Then there was a trial, and Martineau's son was ______ to burn his parents. Can you imagine, this poor couple who imagined being united for ________ of _____ and resuscitate in a future where _________ is completely open, completely vivified and ___________. Well, unfortunately, there is only a heap of ashes left. (Laughter) So behind these tragedies — they don't concern us all if we don't wish to be eaten, frozen, or tossed — who _____. But the problem is that it actually applies to each one of us. It's the Civil Code via the bioethics law of 1994 that says so. The conventions — as you can read — are that there is no private ownership or patrimoniality over the body, because we say that the person is ___________ under law. And so the body itself isn't patrimonial. You don't have an ownership of your body. And so you might tell me: "So what, everything in ______ is forbidden anyway." (Laughter) But even in the US, a country supposedly _______, it's the same _____. It has, by the way, been declared very clearly at a trial in the Supreme Court of California. The John Moore case. John _____ was a patient suffering from leukemia, in the 80s, and the doctors had to remove his spleen. They discovered that his _____ had extraordinary properties for producing certain kind of proteins. So the doctors _________, without _______ John Moore, many of his cells. They extracted blood, sperm, and parts of the spinal cord. They __________ told him that in order to treat his leukemia they had to remove some sperm — that's apparently what happened. (Laughter) And they made a cell line out of it. John Moore's cell line. Which they then sold for hundreds of thousands of dollars to big pharmaceutical institutions. And John Moore, upon realizing what has happened, said: "Wait a minute, I don't get to have a say? These are my cells, if you don't mind." And so there was a big trial, and the _____ concluded that, no, they aren't his cells in fact, given that he doesn't have ownership over his cells. So, where does all of this come from? There are good reasons to think that it came from a monotheistic ________. This idea — as Saint Paul put it: "The body is for the Lord and the Lord is for the body." — is that in the big monotheism, particularly within Judeo-Christian _________, my body doesn't belong to me because it belongs to God. My body is the expression of the soul, as per Thomas d'Aquin. The body is the __________ of my soul, my soul is immortal. It _____ the _______ of heaven. By the way, I can even be resuscitated if the Council of State hasn't burned me first. (Laughter) Pope Pie XII has claimed it very explicitly — this is the first time I'm _______ Pope Pie XII publicly. In 1954, at a medical congress, he explained that Man is merely a usufructuary of his body, not its full owner. So within our _______ law system, a ___________ system, it is not a matter of God anymore, well the concept of God has been replaced by the concept of dignity. Going back to that trial in Morsang-sur-Orge, this is the reason why the Council of State has prohibited dwarf-tossing, because a _____ being's dignity is ______ as being part of the ______ order. It means that today, this transcendence we have abolished, this divine transcendence, is being _______ by the State, or by society if you prefer, defining everyone's dignity. So dignity is sacredness without God. It's the idea that, nonetheless, the body is ______. We cannot do whatever we want with it. I suggest that you try and go to the end of the _________ logic. And if we are really, completely within _________, to whom does the body belong, if not to me? Who can ______ its dignity, if not me? That's what John Lock did, not John Moore, but John Locke. Indeed, there are many Johns. He was the first person to have written, to my _________, that each person has ownership over their own personhood. It's not a coincidence that he is the one who _____ that, He was a doctor, and well-acquainted with _____, the body's reactions. And also because he was in the midst of the glorious British revolution, the Bill of ______ Revolution. So this whole ______ about social contract rights, about __________, fundamental rights, about civil disobedience, also means that one has natural rights that are _____________ among which, the right of ownership of oneself. He went even further by saying: "If can have ownership over exterior things, if I can acquire the world by working on it, by adding value to it," — this idea of ________ was first born out of the appropriation of myself. And think about it, if we have ownership over the body, we have, according to classical themes, the usus, _______ and abusus. Usus means — it's always nice using Latin _____ — usus _____ usage. So if I have usus over the body, the dwarfs can do their work with dignity. Then, fructus, we have it fructified and so John Moore can have access to his cell money. And then you have abusus, I can _____ it and do whatever I want with it, and if I want to have it cryogenized, that's my _______. It appears to me that this new generation is a generation that rejects predetermined structures, one that wants to define their own career, that wants to define their life by traveling, and to build themselves, their own self, be their own creator. And we can see, ___________, ______________, to what extent this generation who appropriates their own body with tattoos for instance, It's also a way to define one's sexuality in a much more fluid way. There is a study that came out which ______ that __________ Z - it's not even Y anymore, it's Z — Generation Z is post-gender. It's not even bi _______, everyone defines their own sexuality by adding a little bit of this or that. So this results in many things. For instance, one can be half-sexual, Grey-sexual, gyno-sexual, pan-sexual, Strauss-Kahn sexual — No, not that. Anyway, there are many versions. I don't know all of them, and can't describe them on stage. But it's interesting, you should look them up. And more importantly, it will allow us to tackle the three big ______ of the future: The subject of human augmentation, the enhancement of oneself, the _____ of transhumanism, and the theme of data. If tomorrow I can, and I already can enhance myself, that's to say building my own artificial arms, enhancing my limbs, enhancing my _____ abilities, even modifying my own DNA. If I modify my own DNA, I must be its owner. If tomorrow I want to test, I want to explore immortality, be it through cryogenisation — here is that nice example again. Or for ________, as Ray Kurzweil, the Pope of transhumanism, envisions it, by transferring my consciousness onto a USB key. Well, similarly, I am going to define, even contractually, the way in which my body relates to the _____. And then there is a third question that might seem a little marginal, the question of data. We produce, a _____ amount of data, and its value is humongous. as in Europe, it's estimated be worth a ________ billion euros by 2020. However, this data, which is worth so much money and with which some companies make so much money, well, your personal data doesn't belong to you. In the same way there isn't a patrimoniality of the body, there isn't a ______________ of data. For the exact same reasons, because data is __________ to be an expression of your personality, and as we saw, within the law, the personality is inalienable and the body isn't patrimonial. If tomorrow we find, that we are able to build a private property for data, which will be to the digital age what ____________ property was to the industrial revolution, you will then become an owner, in truly legal and financial terms, of your own data, which you will be able to negotiate. In other words: you will finally get paid for using Facebook. So, "my body _______ to me" isn't a _________. It's a ______ we would finally all wear. Because this brand new generation will have to confront all these problems. Transhumanism is coming, bioethical committees are already outdated. And in order for everyone to able to choose their own values, in this complex universe, we must first own our own bodies. Thank you!

Solution

  1. considered
  2. fructus
  3. delighted
  4. thousand
  5. cares
  6. platitude
  7. theory
  8. years
  9. quoting
  10. unavailable
  11. story
  12. sexuality
  13. instance
  14. freeze
  15. mayor
  16. modernity
  17. rights
  18. millions
  19. secular
  20. brain
  21. france
  22. large
  23. valéry
  24. telling
  25. cures
  26. world
  27. viewed
  28. tattoo
  29. grave
  30. belongs
  31. joins
  32. predetermined
  33. order
  34. sociologically
  35. registrar
  36. candlelight
  37. belong
  38. terms
  39. declare
  40. final
  41. anymore
  42. moore
  43. problem
  44. named
  45. alive
  46. wardrobe
  47. retaken
  48. knowledge
  49. illnesses
  50. control
  51. rejuvenated
  52. great
  53. showing
  54. property
  55. public
  56. judge
  57. forbidden
  58. cutting
  59. shocking
  60. human
  61. allowed
  62. sacred
  63. abortion
  64. gathering
  65. define
  66. themes
  67. extracted
  68. secularized
  69. showed
  70. euthanized
  71. fishing
  72. abuse
  73. selection
  74. sites
  75. cheaper
  76. religions
  77. apparently
  78. kingdom
  79. cells
  80. theme
  81. caprio
  82. flesh
  83. entire
  84. forced
  85. martineau
  86. immanence
  87. means
  88. people
  89. generation
  90. success
  91. liberal
  92. chose
  93. patrimoniality
  94. elementary
  95. wrote
  96. jurists
  97. anecdotally
  98. heritage
  99. intellectual
  100. reflection

Original Text

I'd like to start by showing you someone who is dressed even worse than I am. [Who is this?] You may notice, aside from the color harmony, a tattoo saying: "My body belongs to me." But who is this person? Is it a punk, who borrowed clothes from their grandmother's wardrobe? Is it a teenager, from the 16th arrondissement of Paris, who feels like rebelling? No. This is our Minister of Health, Marisol Touraine, standing on the steps of the Élysée. And this was last year, to celebrate the 40th year of the Veil Abortion Act, which enables women to take control of their bodies, through a voluntary interruption of their pregnancy. "My body belongs to me" has become banal — everyone says it. By the way, for once, the entire National Assembly has voted in favor of a symbolic law in order to reapprove the Veil Law. It's a banality, even ministers have it tattooed on their arm. However, it's not entirely true. I would like to give you a few examples, that are a little extreme, honestly even shocking, which will demonstrate that for many people and in a lot of cases, well, my body doesn't belong to me. Firstly, it doesn't belong to me as long as I'm alive. I am not allowed to rent my belly. I am not allowed in many countries to sell my sexuality. I am not allowed to define the gender that I belong to, since I have to face a doctor or be in front of a judge, and declare to the civil registrar whether I am a man, woman, or other. I am also not allowed to do whatever I want with my body. For instance, I can't do this. [Dwarf-tossing] So, You might recognize Leonardo Di Caprio, in this great dwarf-tossing scene. But some versions of it exist that are a little less chic, notably the one that was practiced by the great community of Morsang-sur-Orge from l'Essonne, in the beginning of the 90s. The mayor of Morsang-sur-Orge said: "This can't go on — we can't toss dwarfs."” And so he prohibited dwarf-tossing. And who was to protest? Dwarf-tossers found other activities to do on Sundays. They probably went back to fishing. It's the dwarves themselves who protested, because they had a breadwinner, and a certain renown, apparently a certain success with women. And the Morsang-sur-Orges Council of State's decision, which jurists know well, said: "No, this is forbidden." I also cannot do whatever I want with my body in order to die. I am not allowed to be euthanized, but I am also not allowed to be eaten. In 2001, a charming German engineer posted an announcement saying: "I am looking for a volunteer to eat." He received several candidates, made a selection, conducted a few final interviews, and in the end finally found Bernt, who agreed wholeheartedly. So they began by cutting off Bernt's genital and eating it together, probably by candlelight. (Laughter) Obviously satisfied by this first course, they chose to proceed — and by the way this all on video so you can watch it. I recommend it to you, it's really nice — "Armine ate Bernt." But be aware that this is prohibited. It's crazy, considering they haven't hurt anyone. But it is indeed prohibited to be eaten. Well, even after my death I can't do whatever I want with my body. For instance, I am not allowed to practice sea-immersion whereas diving is allowed while I am alive. I am also not allowed to be embalmed, unless my name is Lenin, Mao, or Valéry Giscard d'Estaing. (Laughter) (Applause) And I am also not allowed — and this is even worse — to be cryogenized. You know, some people — have themselves frozen, hoping that in 10 years, 100 years, or a million years, we would defrost them, as by then we will have already found ways to resuscitate them, or found cures to the illnesses that have killed them. This has been somewhat a success. In Russia and the United States, there are some cryogenic sites, where one can see the coffins. Some put their entire body, while others only their head — it's cheaper. (laughter) And in France, a doctor named Martineau, felt that it was a great idea to freeze his wife first. (Laughter) And as it seemed to be going well, he decided to follow her with the freezing. Forever united in a frozen sleep, inside a castle. And then someone found out and filed a complaint: There are some people frozen in the village, do you realize that?” (Laughter) Their son was delighted. He would go to see them from time to time. It's better than gathering around a grave. And the Council of State, that same one, said: "This can't be happening. You need to defrost and burn them! Put it all on fire. Then there was a trial, and Martineau's son was forced to burn his parents. Can you imagine, this poor couple who imagined being united for millions of years and resuscitate in a future where sexuality is completely open, completely vivified and rejuvenated. Well, unfortunately, there is only a heap of ashes left. (Laughter) So behind these tragedies — they don't concern us all if we don't wish to be eaten, frozen, or tossed — who cares. But the problem is that it actually applies to each one of us. It's the Civil Code via the bioethics law of 1994 that says so. The conventions — as you can read — are that there is no private ownership or patrimoniality over the body, because we say that the person is unavailable under law. And so the body itself isn't patrimonial. You don't have an ownership of your body. And so you might tell me: "So what, everything in France is forbidden anyway." (Laughter) But even in the US, a country supposedly liberal, it's the same story. It has, by the way, been declared very clearly at a trial in the Supreme Court of California. The John Moore case. John Moore was a patient suffering from leukemia, in the 80s, and the doctors had to remove his spleen. They discovered that his cells had extraordinary properties for producing certain kind of proteins. So the doctors extracted, without telling John Moore, many of his cells. They extracted blood, sperm, and parts of the spinal cord. They apparently told him that in order to treat his leukemia they had to remove some sperm — that's apparently what happened. (Laughter) And they made a cell line out of it. John Moore's cell line. Which they then sold for hundreds of thousands of dollars to big pharmaceutical institutions. And John Moore, upon realizing what has happened, said: "Wait a minute, I don't get to have a say? These are my cells, if you don't mind." And so there was a big trial, and the judge concluded that, no, they aren't his cells in fact, given that he doesn't have ownership over his cells. So, where does all of this come from? There are good reasons to think that it came from a monotheistic heritage. This idea — as Saint Paul put it: "The body is for the Lord and the Lord is for the body." — is that in the big monotheism, particularly within Judeo-Christian religions, my body doesn't belong to me because it belongs to God. My body is the expression of the soul, as per Thomas d'Aquin. The body is the reflection of my soul, my soul is immortal. It joins the kingdom of heaven. By the way, I can even be resuscitated if the Council of State hasn't burned me first. (Laughter) Pope Pie XII has claimed it very explicitly — this is the first time I'm quoting Pope Pie XII publicly. In 1954, at a medical congress, he explained that Man is merely a usufructuary of his body, not its full owner. So within our secular law system, a secularized system, it is not a matter of God anymore, well the concept of God has been replaced by the concept of dignity. Going back to that trial in Morsang-sur-Orge, this is the reason why the Council of State has prohibited dwarf-tossing, because a human being's dignity is viewed as being part of the public order. It means that today, this transcendence we have abolished, this divine transcendence, is being retaken by the State, or by society if you prefer, defining everyone's dignity. So dignity is sacredness without God. It's the idea that, nonetheless, the body is sacred. We cannot do whatever we want with it. I suggest that you try and go to the end of the modernity logic. And if we are really, completely within immanence, to whom does the body belong, if not to me? Who can define its dignity, if not me? That's what John Lock did, not John Moore, but John Locke. Indeed, there are many Johns. He was the first person to have written, to my knowledge, that each person has ownership over their own personhood. It's not a coincidence that he is the one who wrote that, He was a doctor, and well-acquainted with flesh, the body's reactions. And also because he was in the midst of the glorious British revolution, the Bill of Rights Revolution. So this whole theory about social contract rights, about elementary, fundamental rights, about civil disobedience, also means that one has natural rights that are predetermined among which, the right of ownership of oneself. He went even further by saying: "If can have ownership over exterior things, if I can acquire the world by working on it, by adding value to it," — this idea of property was first born out of the appropriation of myself. And think about it, if we have ownership over the body, we have, according to classical themes, the usus, fructus and abusus. Usus means — it's always nice using Latin terms — usus means usage. So if I have usus over the body, the dwarfs can do their work with dignity. Then, fructus, we have it fructified and so John Moore can have access to his cell money. And then you have abusus, I can abuse it and do whatever I want with it, and if I want to have it cryogenized, that's my problem. It appears to me that this new generation is a generation that rejects predetermined structures, one that wants to define their own career, that wants to define their life by traveling, and to build themselves, their own self, be their own creator. And we can see, anecdotally, sociologically, to what extent this generation who appropriates their own body with tattoos for instance, It's also a way to define one's sexuality in a much more fluid way. There is a study that came out which showed that generation Z - it's not even Y anymore, it's Z — Generation Z is post-gender. It's not even bi anymore, everyone defines their own sexuality by adding a little bit of this or that. So this results in many things. For instance, one can be half-sexual, Grey-sexual, gyno-sexual, pan-sexual, Strauss-Kahn sexual — No, not that. Anyway, there are many versions. I don't know all of them, and can't describe them on stage. But it's interesting, you should look them up. And more importantly, it will allow us to tackle the three big themes of the future: The subject of human augmentation, the enhancement of oneself, the theme of transhumanism, and the theme of data. If tomorrow I can, and I already can enhance myself, that's to say building my own artificial arms, enhancing my limbs, enhancing my brain abilities, even modifying my own DNA. If I modify my own DNA, I must be its owner. If tomorrow I want to test, I want to explore immortality, be it through cryogenisation — here is that nice example again. Or for instance, as Ray Kurzweil, the Pope of transhumanism, envisions it, by transferring my consciousness onto a USB key. Well, similarly, I am going to define, even contractually, the way in which my body relates to the world. And then there is a third question that might seem a little marginal, the question of data. We produce, a large amount of data, and its value is humongous. as in Europe, it's estimated be worth a thousand billion euros by 2020. However, this data, which is worth so much money and with which some companies make so much money, well, your personal data doesn't belong to you. In the same way there isn't a patrimoniality of the body, there isn't a patrimoniality of data. For the exact same reasons, because data is considered to be an expression of your personality, and as we saw, within the law, the personality is inalienable and the body isn't patrimonial. If tomorrow we find, that we are able to build a private property for data, which will be to the digital age what intellectual property was to the industrial revolution, you will then become an owner, in truly legal and financial terms, of your own data, which you will be able to negotiate. In other words: you will finally get paid for using Facebook. So, "my body belongs to me" isn't a platitude. It's a tattoo we would finally all wear. Because this brand new generation will have to confront all these problems. Transhumanism is coming, bioethical committees are already outdated. And in order for everyone to able to choose their own values, in this complex universe, we must first own our own bodies. Thank you!

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
body belongs 3
john moore 3
cell line 2
pope pie 2
pie xii 2
usus means 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
pope pie xii 2

Important Words

  1. abilities
  2. abolished
  3. abortion
  4. abuse
  5. abusus
  6. access
  7. acquire
  8. act
  9. activities
  10. adding
  11. age
  12. agreed
  13. alive
  14. allowed
  15. amount
  16. anecdotally
  17. announcement
  18. anymore
  19. apparently
  20. appears
  21. applause
  22. applies
  23. appropriates
  24. appropriation
  25. arm
  26. arms
  27. arrondissement
  28. artificial
  29. ashes
  30. assembly
  31. ate
  32. augmentation
  33. aware
  34. banal
  35. banality
  36. began
  37. beginning
  38. belly
  39. belong
  40. belongs
  41. bernt
  42. bi
  43. big
  44. bill
  45. billion
  46. bioethical
  47. bioethics
  48. bit
  49. blood
  50. bodies
  51. body
  52. born
  53. borrowed
  54. brain
  55. brand
  56. breadwinner
  57. british
  58. build
  59. building
  60. burn
  61. burned
  62. california
  63. candidates
  64. candlelight
  65. caprio
  66. career
  67. cares
  68. case
  69. cases
  70. castle
  71. celebrate
  72. cell
  73. cells
  74. charming
  75. cheaper
  76. chic
  77. choose
  78. chose
  79. civil
  80. claimed
  81. classical
  82. clothes
  83. code
  84. coffins
  85. coincidence
  86. color
  87. coming
  88. committees
  89. community
  90. companies
  91. completely
  92. complex
  93. concept
  94. concern
  95. concluded
  96. conducted
  97. confront
  98. congress
  99. consciousness
  100. considered
  101. contract
  102. contractually
  103. control
  104. conventions
  105. cord
  106. council
  107. countries
  108. country
  109. couple
  110. court
  111. crazy
  112. creator
  113. cryogenic
  114. cryogenisation
  115. cryogenized
  116. cures
  117. cutting
  118. data
  119. death
  120. decided
  121. decision
  122. declare
  123. declared
  124. define
  125. defines
  126. defining
  127. defrost
  128. delighted
  129. demonstrate
  130. describe
  131. di
  132. die
  133. digital
  134. dignity
  135. discovered
  136. disobedience
  137. divine
  138. diving
  139. dna
  140. doctor
  141. doctors
  142. dollars
  143. dressed
  144. dwarfs
  145. dwarves
  146. eat
  147. eaten
  148. eating
  149. elementary
  150. embalmed
  151. enables
  152. engineer
  153. enhance
  154. enhancement
  155. enhancing
  156. entire
  157. envisions
  158. estimated
  159. europe
  160. euros
  161. euthanized
  162. exact
  163. examples
  164. exist
  165. explained
  166. explicitly
  167. explore
  168. expression
  169. extent
  170. exterior
  171. extracted
  172. extraordinary
  173. extreme
  174. face
  175. facebook
  176. fact
  177. favor
  178. feels
  179. felt
  180. filed
  181. final
  182. finally
  183. financial
  184. find
  185. fire
  186. firstly
  187. fishing
  188. flesh
  189. fluid
  190. follow
  191. forbidden
  192. forced
  193. france
  194. freeze
  195. freezing
  196. front
  197. frozen
  198. fructified
  199. fructus
  200. full
  201. fundamental
  202. future
  203. gathering
  204. gender
  205. generation
  206. genital
  207. german
  208. giscard
  209. give
  210. glorious
  211. god
  212. good
  213. grave
  214. great
  215. happened
  216. happening
  217. harmony
  218. head
  219. health
  220. heap
  221. heaven
  222. heritage
  223. honestly
  224. hoping
  225. human
  226. humongous
  227. hundreds
  228. hurt
  229. idea
  230. illnesses
  231. imagine
  232. imagined
  233. immanence
  234. immortal
  235. immortality
  236. importantly
  237. inalienable
  238. industrial
  239. instance
  240. institutions
  241. intellectual
  242. interesting
  243. interruption
  244. interviews
  245. john
  246. johns
  247. joins
  248. judge
  249. jurists
  250. key
  251. killed
  252. kind
  253. kingdom
  254. knowledge
  255. kurzweil
  256. large
  257. latin
  258. laughter
  259. law
  260. left
  261. legal
  262. lenin
  263. leonardo
  264. leukemia
  265. liberal
  266. life
  267. limbs
  268. line
  269. lock
  270. locke
  271. logic
  272. long
  273. lord
  274. lot
  275. man
  276. mao
  277. marginal
  278. marisol
  279. martineau
  280. matter
  281. mayor
  282. means
  283. medical
  284. midst
  285. million
  286. millions
  287. mind
  288. minister
  289. ministers
  290. minute
  291. modernity
  292. modify
  293. modifying
  294. money
  295. monotheism
  296. monotheistic
  297. moore
  298. named
  299. national
  300. natural
  301. negotiate
  302. nice
  303. notably
  304. notice
  305. oneself
  306. open
  307. order
  308. outdated
  309. owner
  310. ownership
  311. paid
  312. parents
  313. paris
  314. part
  315. parts
  316. patient
  317. patrimonial
  318. patrimoniality
  319. paul
  320. people
  321. person
  322. personal
  323. personality
  324. personhood
  325. pharmaceutical
  326. pie
  327. platitude
  328. poor
  329. pope
  330. posted
  331. practice
  332. practiced
  333. predetermined
  334. prefer
  335. pregnancy
  336. private
  337. problem
  338. problems
  339. proceed
  340. produce
  341. producing
  342. prohibited
  343. properties
  344. property
  345. proteins
  346. protest
  347. protested
  348. public
  349. publicly
  350. punk
  351. put
  352. question
  353. quoting
  354. ray
  355. reactions
  356. read
  357. realize
  358. realizing
  359. reapprove
  360. reason
  361. reasons
  362. rebelling
  363. received
  364. recognize
  365. recommend
  366. reflection
  367. registrar
  368. rejects
  369. rejuvenated
  370. relates
  371. religions
  372. remove
  373. renown
  374. rent
  375. replaced
  376. results
  377. resuscitate
  378. resuscitated
  379. retaken
  380. revolution
  381. rights
  382. russia
  383. sacred
  384. sacredness
  385. saint
  386. satisfied
  387. scene
  388. secular
  389. secularized
  390. selection
  391. sell
  392. sexual
  393. sexuality
  394. shocking
  395. showed
  396. showing
  397. similarly
  398. sites
  399. sleep
  400. social
  401. society
  402. sociologically
  403. sold
  404. son
  405. soul
  406. sperm
  407. spinal
  408. spleen
  409. stage
  410. standing
  411. start
  412. state
  413. states
  414. steps
  415. story
  416. structures
  417. study
  418. subject
  419. success
  420. suffering
  421. suggest
  422. sundays
  423. supposedly
  424. supreme
  425. symbolic
  426. system
  427. tackle
  428. tattoo
  429. tattooed
  430. tattoos
  431. teenager
  432. telling
  433. terms
  434. test
  435. theme
  436. themes
  437. theory
  438. thomas
  439. thousand
  440. thousands
  441. time
  442. today
  443. told
  444. tomorrow
  445. toss
  446. tossed
  447. touraine
  448. tragedies
  449. transcendence
  450. transferring
  451. transhumanism
  452. traveling
  453. treat
  454. trial
  455. true
  456. unavailable
  457. united
  458. universe
  459. usage
  460. usb
  461. usufructuary
  462. usus
  463. values
  464. valéry
  465. veil
  466. versions
  467. video
  468. viewed
  469. village
  470. vivified
  471. voluntary
  472. volunteer
  473. voted
  474. wardrobe
  475. watch
  476. ways
  477. wear
  478. wholeheartedly
  479. wife
  480. woman
  481. women
  482. work
  483. working
  484. world
  485. worse
  486. worth
  487. written
  488. wrote
  489. xii
  490. year
  491. years
  492. élysée