full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Mina Bissell: Experiments that point to a new understanding of cancer

Unscramble the Blue Letters

And again this didn't make ssnee to me. So for various reasons, we took this oncogene, attached it to a blue marker, and we injected it into the embryos. Now look at that. There is that beautiful featehr in the embryo. Every one of those blue cells are a cancer gene inside a cecanr cell, and they're part of the feather. So, when we dissociated the feather and put it in a dish, we got a mass of blue cells. So, in the chicken you get a tumor, in the embryo you don't, you dissociate, you put it in a dish, you get another tmuor. What does that mean? That means that microenvironment and the context which surrounds those clles actually are telling the cancer gene and the cancer cell what to do.

Open Cloze

And again this didn't make _____ to me. So for various reasons, we took this oncogene, attached it to a blue marker, and we injected it into the embryos. Now look at that. There is that beautiful _______ in the embryo. Every one of those blue cells are a cancer gene inside a ______ cell, and they're part of the feather. So, when we dissociated the feather and put it in a dish, we got a mass of blue cells. So, in the chicken you get a tumor, in the embryo you don't, you dissociate, you put it in a dish, you get another _____. What does that mean? That means that microenvironment and the context which surrounds those _____ actually are telling the cancer gene and the cancer cell what to do.

Solution

  1. cells
  2. feather
  3. tumor
  4. sense
  5. cancer

Original Text

And again this didn't make sense to me. So for various reasons, we took this oncogene, attached it to a blue marker, and we injected it into the embryos. Now look at that. There is that beautiful feather in the embryo. Every one of those blue cells are a cancer gene inside a cancer cell, and they're part of the feather. So, when we dissociated the feather and put it in a dish, we got a mass of blue cells. So, in the chicken you get a tumor, in the embryo you don't, you dissociate, you put it in a dish, you get another tumor. What does that mean? That means that microenvironment and the context which surrounds those cells actually are telling the cancer gene and the cancer cell what to do.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
extracellular matrix 6
mammary gland 4
single oncogene 3
cancer cell 3
genetic information 2
ugly tumor 2
blue cells 2
cancer gene 2
human breast 2
red cells 2
completely forget 2
malignant phenotype 2
tissue organization 2

Important Words

  1. attached
  2. beautiful
  3. blue
  4. cancer
  5. cell
  6. cells
  7. chicken
  8. context
  9. dish
  10. dissociate
  11. dissociated
  12. embryo
  13. embryos
  14. feather
  15. gene
  16. injected
  17. marker
  18. mass
  19. means
  20. microenvironment
  21. oncogene
  22. part
  23. put
  24. reasons
  25. sense
  26. surrounds
  27. telling
  28. tumor