full transcript

## Unscramble the Blue Letters

In 1997, in a game between frcane and brzail, a young Brazilian player named Roberto claors set up for a 35 meter free kick. With no direct line to the goal, Carlos decided to attempt the seemingly impossible. His kick sent the ball flying wide of the players, but just before going out of bounds, it hooked to the left and soared into the goal. According to Newton's first law of motoin, an ocbejt will move in the same direction and vitlceoy until a force is applied on it. When Carlos keickd the ball, he gave it direction and velocity, but what force made the ball swerve and score one of the most magnificent goals in the history of the sport? The tcrik was in the spin. Carlos placed his kick at the lower right corner of the ball, sennidg it high and to the right, but also rotating around its axis. The ball started its flight in an aleraptpny direct rutoe, with air flwiong on both sides and slowing it down. On one side, the air moved in the opposite direction to the ball's spin, causing increased pressure, while on the other side, the air moved in the same direction as the spin, creating an area of lower pressure. That dnfeiecfre made the ball curve towards the lower pressure zone. This phenomenon is called the Magnus ecefft. This type of kick, often referred to as a banana kick, is attempted reulgalry, and it is one of the elements that makes the biuefautl game beautiful. But crnvuig the ball with the pirescion needed to both bend around the wall and back into the goal is difficult. Too high and it saros over the goal. Too low and it hits the ground before curving. Too wide and it never reaches the goal. Not wide enough and the defenders intercept it. Too slow and it hkoos too early, or not at all. Too fast and it hooks too late. The same physics make it possible to score another apparently impossible goal, an unassisted corner kick. The Magnus effect was first documented by Sir Isaac Newton after he noticed it while playing a game of tnneis back in 1670. It also applies to golf balls, frisbees and baseballs. In every case, the same thing happens. The ball's spin creates a pressure dteniafiferl in the surrounding air flow that curves it in the dieitrocn of the spin. And here's a qtsueoin. Could you theoretically kick a ball hard enough to make it bmaenoorg all the way around back to you? Sadly, no. Even if the ball didn't disintegrate on impact, or hit any obstacles, as the air slowed it, the angle of its deflection would increase, ciasnug it to spiral into sllmaer and smaller circles until finally stopping. And just to get that spiral, you'd have to make the ball spin over 15 times faster than Carlos's immortal kick. So good luck with that.

## Open Cloze

In 1997, in a game between ______ and ______, a young Brazilian player named Roberto ______ set up for a 35 meter free kick. With no direct line to the goal, Carlos decided to attempt the seemingly impossible. His kick sent the ball flying wide of the players, but just before going out of bounds, it hooked to the left and soared into the goal. According to Newton's first law of ______, an ______ will move in the same direction and ________ until a force is applied on it. When Carlos ______ the ball, he gave it direction and velocity, but what force made the ball swerve and score one of the most magnificent goals in the history of the sport? The _____ was in the spin. Carlos placed his kick at the lower right corner of the ball, _______ it high and to the right, but also rotating around its axis. The ball started its flight in an __________ direct _____, with air _______ on both sides and slowing it down. On one side, the air moved in the opposite direction to the ball's spin, causing increased pressure, while on the other side, the air moved in the same direction as the spin, creating an area of lower pressure. That __________ made the ball curve towards the lower pressure zone. This phenomenon is called the Magnus ______. This type of kick, often referred to as a banana kick, is attempted _________, and it is one of the elements that makes the _________ game beautiful. But _______ the ball with the _________ needed to both bend around the wall and back into the goal is difficult. Too high and it _____ over the goal. Too low and it hits the ground before curving. Too wide and it never reaches the goal. Not wide enough and the defenders intercept it. Too slow and it _____ too early, or not at all. Too fast and it hooks too late. The same physics make it possible to score another apparently impossible goal, an unassisted corner kick. The Magnus effect was first documented by Sir Isaac Newton after he noticed it while playing a game of ______ back in 1670. It also applies to golf balls, frisbees and baseballs. In every case, the same thing happens. The ball's spin creates a pressure ____________ in the surrounding air flow that curves it in the _________ of the spin. And here's a ________. Could you theoretically kick a ball hard enough to make it _________ all the way around back to you? Sadly, no. Even if the ball didn't disintegrate on impact, or hit any obstacles, as the air slowed it, the angle of its deflection would increase, _______ it to spiral into _______ and smaller circles until finally stopping. And just to get that spiral, you'd have to make the ball spin over 15 times faster than Carlos's immortal kick. So good luck with that.

## Solution

1. beautiful
2. question
3. soars
4. sending
5. brazil
6. carlos
7. direction
8. effect
9. regularly
10. causing
11. kicked
12. boomerang
13. object
14. hooks
15. motion
16. curving
17. flowing
18. tennis
19. smaller
20. france
21. velocity
22. difference
23. trick
24. route
25. differential
26. apparently
27. precision

## Original Text

In 1997, in a game between France and Brazil, a young Brazilian player named Roberto Carlos set up for a 35 meter free kick. With no direct line to the goal, Carlos decided to attempt the seemingly impossible. His kick sent the ball flying wide of the players, but just before going out of bounds, it hooked to the left and soared into the goal. According to Newton's first law of motion, an object will move in the same direction and velocity until a force is applied on it. When Carlos kicked the ball, he gave it direction and velocity, but what force made the ball swerve and score one of the most magnificent goals in the history of the sport? The trick was in the spin. Carlos placed his kick at the lower right corner of the ball, sending it high and to the right, but also rotating around its axis. The ball started its flight in an apparently direct route, with air flowing on both sides and slowing it down. On one side, the air moved in the opposite direction to the ball's spin, causing increased pressure, while on the other side, the air moved in the same direction as the spin, creating an area of lower pressure. That difference made the ball curve towards the lower pressure zone. This phenomenon is called the Magnus effect. This type of kick, often referred to as a banana kick, is attempted regularly, and it is one of the elements that makes the beautiful game beautiful. But curving the ball with the precision needed to both bend around the wall and back into the goal is difficult. Too high and it soars over the goal. Too low and it hits the ground before curving. Too wide and it never reaches the goal. Not wide enough and the defenders intercept it. Too slow and it hooks too early, or not at all. Too fast and it hooks too late. The same physics make it possible to score another apparently impossible goal, an unassisted corner kick. The Magnus effect was first documented by Sir Isaac Newton after he noticed it while playing a game of tennis back in 1670. It also applies to golf balls, frisbees and baseballs. In every case, the same thing happens. The ball's spin creates a pressure differential in the surrounding air flow that curves it in the direction of the spin. And here's a question. Could you theoretically kick a ball hard enough to make it boomerang all the way around back to you? Sadly, no. Even if the ball didn't disintegrate on impact, or hit any obstacles, as the air slowed it, the angle of its deflection would increase, causing it to spiral into smaller and smaller circles until finally stopping. And just to get that spiral, you'd have to make the ball spin over 15 times faster than Carlos's immortal kick. So good luck with that.

## Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

### ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
air moved 2
magnus effect 2

## Important Words

1. air
2. angle
3. apparently
4. applied
5. applies
6. area
7. attempt
8. attempted
9. axis
10. ball
11. balls
12. banana
13. baseballs
14. beautiful
15. bend
16. boomerang
17. bounds
18. brazil
19. brazilian
20. called
21. carlos
22. case
23. causing
24. circles
25. corner
26. creates
27. creating
28. curve
29. curves
30. curving
31. decided
32. defenders
33. deflection
34. difference
35. differential
36. difficult
37. direct
38. direction
39. disintegrate
40. documented
41. early
42. effect
43. elements
44. fast
45. faster
46. finally
47. flight
48. flow
49. flowing
50. flying
51. force
52. france
53. free
54. frisbees
55. game
56. gave
57. goal
58. goals
59. golf
60. good
61. ground
62. hard
63. high
64. history
65. hit
66. hits
67. hooked
68. hooks
69. immortal
70. impact
71. impossible
72. increase
73. increased
74. intercept
75. isaac
76. kick
77. kicked
78. late
79. law
80. left
81. line
82. luck
83. magnificent
84. magnus
85. meter
86. motion
87. move
88. moved
89. named
90. needed
91. newton
92. noticed
93. object
94. obstacles
95. phenomenon
96. physics
97. player
98. players
99. playing
100. precision
101. pressure
102. question
103. reaches
104. referred
105. regularly
106. roberto
107. rotating
108. route
110. score
111. seemingly
112. sending
113. set
114. side
115. sides
116. sir
117. slow
118. slowed
119. slowing
120. smaller
121. soared
122. soars
123. spin
124. spiral
125. sport
126. started
127. stopping
128. surrounding
129. swerve
130. tennis
131. theoretically
132. times
133. trick
134. type
135. unassisted
136. velocity
137. wall
138. wide
139. young
140. zone