full transcript

From the Ted Talk by George Monbiot: For more wonder, rewild the world

Unscramble the Blue Letters

One of the most exciting scientific findings of the past half century has been the discovery of widespread trophic cascades. A trophic cascade is an elgaoccoil psecros which starts at the top of the food cihan and tumbles all the way down to the bottom, and the classic example is what hnppaeed in the yetosnolwle National Park in the United States when woevls were reintroduced in 1995. Now, we all know that wolves kill various species of animals, but perhaps we're shigtlly less aware that they give life to many others. It sounds snargte, but just follow me for a while. Before the wolves turned up, they'd been absent for 70 yraes. The numbers of deer, because there was nothing to hunt them, had built up and built up in the Yellowstone Park, and despite efforts by humans to control them, they'd managed to reduce much of the vegetation there to almost nothing, they'd just grzaed it away. But as soon as the wolves arrived, even though they were few in number, they serattd to have the most remarkable effects. First, of course, they killed some of the deer, but that wasn't the major thing. Much more significantly, they radically cahengd the behavior of the deer. The deer started avoiding certain parts of the park, the places where they could be trapped most easily, particularly the valleys and the gorges, and immediately those places started to rtagreenee. In some areas, the height of the trees quintupled in just six years. Bare valley sides quickly became forests of aspen and woillw and cottonwood. And as soon as that happened, the birds started moving in. The nmeubr of songbirds, of migratory birds, started to increase glratey. The number of beavers started to iaerscne, because beavers like to eat the trees. And bveraes, like wolves, are ecosystem engineers. They create niches for other species. And the dams they built in the rrives provided habitats for ottres and muskrats and ducks and fish and reptiles and amphibians. The wolves kllied coyotes, and as a result of that, the number of rabbits and mice began to rise, which meant more hawks, more weasels, more foxes, more badgers. Ravens and bald eagles came down to feed on the carrion that the wolves had left. Bears fed on it too, and their population began to rise as well, partly also because there were more berries growing on the rrneeiangteg shrubs, and the bears reinforced the impact of the wolves by klinilg some of the calves of the deer.

Open Cloze

One of the most exciting scientific findings of the past half century has been the discovery of widespread trophic cascades. A trophic cascade is an __________ _______ which starts at the top of the food _____ and tumbles all the way down to the bottom, and the classic example is what ________ in the ___________ National Park in the United States when ______ were reintroduced in 1995. Now, we all know that wolves kill various species of animals, but perhaps we're ________ less aware that they give life to many others. It sounds _______, but just follow me for a while. Before the wolves turned up, they'd been absent for 70 _____. The numbers of deer, because there was nothing to hunt them, had built up and built up in the Yellowstone Park, and despite efforts by humans to control them, they'd managed to reduce much of the vegetation there to almost nothing, they'd just ______ it away. But as soon as the wolves arrived, even though they were few in number, they _______ to have the most remarkable effects. First, of course, they killed some of the deer, but that wasn't the major thing. Much more significantly, they radically _______ the behavior of the deer. The deer started avoiding certain parts of the park, the places where they could be trapped most easily, particularly the valleys and the gorges, and immediately those places started to __________. In some areas, the height of the trees quintupled in just six years. Bare valley sides quickly became forests of aspen and ______ and cottonwood. And as soon as that happened, the birds started moving in. The ______ of songbirds, of migratory birds, started to increase _______. The number of beavers started to ________, because beavers like to eat the trees. And _______, like wolves, are ecosystem engineers. They create niches for other species. And the dams they built in the ______ provided habitats for ______ and muskrats and ducks and fish and reptiles and amphibians. The wolves ______ coyotes, and as a result of that, the number of rabbits and mice began to rise, which meant more hawks, more weasels, more foxes, more badgers. Ravens and bald eagles came down to feed on the carrion that the wolves had left. Bears fed on it too, and their population began to rise as well, partly also because there were more berries growing on the ____________ shrubs, and the bears reinforced the impact of the wolves by _______ some of the calves of the deer.

Solution

  1. increase
  2. wolves
  3. changed
  4. ecological
  5. slightly
  6. yellowstone
  7. beavers
  8. otters
  9. greatly
  10. killed
  11. grazed
  12. process
  13. killing
  14. willow
  15. years
  16. chain
  17. regenerating
  18. happened
  19. rivers
  20. regenerate
  21. started
  22. number
  23. strange

Original Text

One of the most exciting scientific findings of the past half century has been the discovery of widespread trophic cascades. A trophic cascade is an ecological process which starts at the top of the food chain and tumbles all the way down to the bottom, and the classic example is what happened in the Yellowstone National Park in the United States when wolves were reintroduced in 1995. Now, we all know that wolves kill various species of animals, but perhaps we're slightly less aware that they give life to many others. It sounds strange, but just follow me for a while. Before the wolves turned up, they'd been absent for 70 years. The numbers of deer, because there was nothing to hunt them, had built up and built up in the Yellowstone Park, and despite efforts by humans to control them, they'd managed to reduce much of the vegetation there to almost nothing, they'd just grazed it away. But as soon as the wolves arrived, even though they were few in number, they started to have the most remarkable effects. First, of course, they killed some of the deer, but that wasn't the major thing. Much more significantly, they radically changed the behavior of the deer. The deer started avoiding certain parts of the park, the places where they could be trapped most easily, particularly the valleys and the gorges, and immediately those places started to regenerate. In some areas, the height of the trees quintupled in just six years. Bare valley sides quickly became forests of aspen and willow and cottonwood. And as soon as that happened, the birds started moving in. The number of songbirds, of migratory birds, started to increase greatly. The number of beavers started to increase, because beavers like to eat the trees. And beavers, like wolves, are ecosystem engineers. They create niches for other species. And the dams they built in the rivers provided habitats for otters and muskrats and ducks and fish and reptiles and amphibians. The wolves killed coyotes, and as a result of that, the number of rabbits and mice began to rise, which meant more hawks, more weasels, more foxes, more badgers. Ravens and bald eagles came down to feed on the carrion that the wolves had left. Bears fed on it too, and their population began to rise as well, partly also because there were more berries growing on the regenerating shrubs, and the bears reinforced the impact of the wolves by killing some of the calves of the deer.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
yellowstone national 3
plant plankton 3
trophic cascades 2
national park 2
physical geography 2
trafalgar square 2
resist browsing 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
yellowstone national park 2

Important Words

  1. absent
  2. amphibians
  3. animals
  4. areas
  5. arrived
  6. aspen
  7. avoiding
  8. aware
  9. badgers
  10. bald
  11. bare
  12. bears
  13. beavers
  14. began
  15. behavior
  16. berries
  17. birds
  18. bottom
  19. built
  20. calves
  21. carrion
  22. cascade
  23. cascades
  24. century
  25. chain
  26. changed
  27. classic
  28. control
  29. cottonwood
  30. coyotes
  31. create
  32. dams
  33. deer
  34. discovery
  35. ducks
  36. eagles
  37. easily
  38. eat
  39. ecological
  40. ecosystem
  41. effects
  42. efforts
  43. engineers
  44. exciting
  45. fed
  46. feed
  47. findings
  48. fish
  49. follow
  50. food
  51. forests
  52. foxes
  53. give
  54. gorges
  55. grazed
  56. greatly
  57. growing
  58. habitats
  59. happened
  60. hawks
  61. height
  62. humans
  63. hunt
  64. immediately
  65. impact
  66. increase
  67. kill
  68. killed
  69. killing
  70. left
  71. life
  72. major
  73. managed
  74. meant
  75. mice
  76. migratory
  77. moving
  78. muskrats
  79. national
  80. niches
  81. number
  82. numbers
  83. otters
  84. park
  85. partly
  86. parts
  87. places
  88. population
  89. process
  90. quickly
  91. quintupled
  92. rabbits
  93. radically
  94. ravens
  95. reduce
  96. regenerate
  97. regenerating
  98. reinforced
  99. reintroduced
  100. remarkable
  101. reptiles
  102. result
  103. rise
  104. rivers
  105. scientific
  106. shrubs
  107. sides
  108. significantly
  109. slightly
  110. songbirds
  111. sounds
  112. species
  113. started
  114. starts
  115. states
  116. strange
  117. top
  118. trapped
  119. trees
  120. trophic
  121. tumbles
  122. turned
  123. united
  124. valley
  125. valleys
  126. vegetation
  127. weasels
  128. widespread
  129. willow
  130. wolves
  131. years
  132. yellowstone