full transcript

## Unscramble the Blue Letters

Have you ever been floating in a swimming pool, all comfy and warm, thinking, "Man, it'd be cool to be an astronaut! You could float out in otuer space, look down at the Earth and everything. It'd be so neat!" Only that's not how it is at all. If you are in outer spcae, you are obrtinig the Earth: it's called free fall. You're actually falling towards the Earth. Think about this for a moment: that's the feeling you get if you're going over the top of a roller coaster, going, like, "Whoa!" Only you're doing this the whole time you're orbiting the Earth, for two, three, four hours, days. Whatever it takes, right? So, how does orbiting work? Let's take a page from Isaac Newton. He had this idea, a little mental experiment: You take a cannon, you put it on top of a hill. If you sohot the cannonball, it goes a little bit away. But if you shoot it hdrear, it goes far enough so that it lands a little bit past the curvature of Earth. Well, you can imagine if you shot it really, really, hard, it would go all the way around the Earth and come back — boom! — and hit you in the backside or something. Let's zoom way back and put you in a little sitltaele over the North Pole of the etarh and consider north to be up. You're going to fall down and hit the Earth. But you are actually moving sideways really fast. So when you fall down, you're going to miss. You're going to end up on the side of the Earth, fillang down, and now the Earth is pnullig you back in sideways. So it's pulling you back in and you fall down, and so you miss the Earth again, and now you're under the Earth. The Earth is going to pull you up, but you're moving sideways still. So you're going to miss the Earth again. Now you're on the other side of the Earth, moving upward, and the Earth's pulling you sideways. So you're going to fall sideways, but you're going to be mnivog up and so you'll miss. Now you're back on top of the Earth again, over the North Pole, going sideways and falling down, and yep — you guessed it. You'll keep missing because you're moving so fast. In this way, astronauts orbit the Earth. They're always falling towards the Earth, but they're always missing, and therefore, they're falling all the time. They feel like they're falling, so you just have to get over it. So technically, if you ran fast enough and tripped, you could miss the Earth. But there's a big problem. First, you have to be going eight ktoeemrils a second. That's 18,000 miels an hour, just over Mach 23! The second problem: If you're going that fast, yes, you would oribt the Earth and come back where you came from, but there's a lot of air in the way, much less people and things. So you would burn up due to atresmophic friction. So, I do not recommend this.

## Open Cloze

Have you ever been floating in a swimming pool, all comfy and warm, thinking, "Man, it'd be cool to be an astronaut! You could float out in _____ space, look down at the Earth and everything. It'd be so neat!" Only that's not how it is at all. If you are in outer _____, you are ________ the Earth: it's called free fall. You're actually falling towards the Earth. Think about this for a moment: that's the feeling you get if you're going over the top of a roller coaster, going, like, "Whoa!" Only you're doing this the whole time you're orbiting the Earth, for two, three, four hours, days. Whatever it takes, right? So, how does orbiting work? Let's take a page from Isaac Newton. He had this idea, a little mental experiment: You take a cannon, you put it on top of a hill. If you _____ the cannonball, it goes a little bit away. But if you shoot it ______, it goes far enough so that it lands a little bit past the curvature of Earth. Well, you can imagine if you shot it really, really, hard, it would go all the way around the Earth and come back — boom! — and hit you in the backside or something. Let's zoom way back and put you in a little _________ over the North Pole of the _____ and consider north to be up. You're going to fall down and hit the Earth. But you are actually moving sideways really fast. So when you fall down, you're going to miss. You're going to end up on the side of the Earth, _______ down, and now the Earth is _______ you back in sideways. So it's pulling you back in and you fall down, and so you miss the Earth again, and now you're under the Earth. The Earth is going to pull you up, but you're moving sideways still. So you're going to miss the Earth again. Now you're on the other side of the Earth, moving upward, and the Earth's pulling you sideways. So you're going to fall sideways, but you're going to be ______ up and so you'll miss. Now you're back on top of the Earth again, over the North Pole, going sideways and falling down, and yep — you guessed it. You'll keep missing because you're moving so fast. In this way, astronauts orbit the Earth. They're always falling towards the Earth, but they're always missing, and therefore, they're falling all the time. They feel like they're falling, so you just have to get over it. So technically, if you ran fast enough and tripped, you could miss the Earth. But there's a big problem. First, you have to be going eight __________ a second. That's 18,000 _____ an hour, just over Mach 23! The second problem: If you're going that fast, yes, you would _____ the Earth and come back where you came from, but there's a lot of air in the way, much less people and things. So you would burn up due to ___________ friction. So, I do not recommend this.

1. atmospheric
2. kilometers
3. harder
4. satellite
5. orbiting
6. outer
7. miles
8. pulling
9. space
10. moving
11. earth
12. shoot
13. orbit
14. falling

## Original Text

Have you ever been floating in a swimming pool, all comfy and warm, thinking, "Man, it'd be cool to be an astronaut! You could float out in outer space, look down at the Earth and everything. It'd be so neat!" Only that's not how it is at all. If you are in outer space, you are orbiting the Earth: it's called free fall. You're actually falling towards the Earth. Think about this for a moment: that's the feeling you get if you're going over the top of a roller coaster, going, like, "Whoa!" Only you're doing this the whole time you're orbiting the Earth, for two, three, four hours, days. Whatever it takes, right? So, how does orbiting work? Let's take a page from Isaac Newton. He had this idea, a little mental experiment: You take a cannon, you put it on top of a hill. If you shoot the cannonball, it goes a little bit away. But if you shoot it harder, it goes far enough so that it lands a little bit past the curvature of Earth. Well, you can imagine if you shot it really, really, hard, it would go all the way around the Earth and come back — boom! — and hit you in the backside or something. Let's zoom way back and put you in a little satellite over the North Pole of the Earth and consider north to be up. You're going to fall down and hit the Earth. But you are actually moving sideways really fast. So when you fall down, you're going to miss. You're going to end up on the side of the Earth, falling down, and now the Earth is pulling you back in sideways. So it's pulling you back in and you fall down, and so you miss the Earth again, and now you're under the Earth. The Earth is going to pull you up, but you're moving sideways still. So you're going to miss the Earth again. Now you're on the other side of the Earth, moving upward, and the Earth's pulling you sideways. So you're going to fall sideways, but you're going to be moving up and so you'll miss. Now you're back on top of the Earth again, over the North Pole, going sideways and falling down, and yep — you guessed it. You'll keep missing because you're moving so fast. In this way, astronauts orbit the Earth. They're always falling towards the Earth, but they're always missing, and therefore, they're falling all the time. They feel like they're falling, so you just have to get over it. So technically, if you ran fast enough and tripped, you could miss the Earth. But there's a big problem. First, you have to be going eight kilometers a second. That's 18,000 miles an hour, just over Mach 23! The second problem: If you're going that fast, yes, you would orbit the Earth and come back where you came from, but there's a lot of air in the way, much less people and things. So you would burn up due to atmospheric friction. So, I do not recommend this.

## Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

### ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
moving sideways 2

## Important Words

1. air
2. astronauts
3. atmospheric
4. backside
5. big
6. bit
7. burn
8. called
9. cannon
10. cannonball
11. coaster
12. comfy
13. cool
14. curvature
15. days
16. due
17. earth
18. fall
19. falling
20. fast
21. feel
22. feeling
23. float
24. floating
25. free
26. friction
27. guessed
28. hard
29. harder
30. hill
31. hit
32. hour
33. hours
34. idea
35. imagine
36. isaac
37. kilometers
38. lands
39. lot
40. mach
41. mental
42. miles
43. missing
44. moving
45. newton
46. north
47. orbit
48. orbiting
49. outer
50. page
51. people
52. pole
53. pool
54. problem
55. pull
56. pulling
57. put
58. ran
59. recommend
60. roller
61. satellite
62. shoot
63. shot
64. side
65. sideways
66. space
67. swimming
68. takes
69. technically
70. thinking
71. time
72. top
73. tripped
74. upward
75. warm
76. work
77. yep
78. zoom