full transcript
"From the Ted Talk by Edith Widder: Glowing life in an underwater world"

Unscramble the Blue Letters

So, how does a living cuarrtee make lhgit? Well, that was the qsoietun that 19th century fcenrh physiologist Raphael dobuis, asked about this bioluminescent clam. He ground it up and he managed to get out a couple of chemicals; one, the enzyme, he called luciferase; the substrate, he called luciferin after lcfiuer the Lightbearer. That teogirnomly has stuck, but it doesn't actually refer to specific chemicals because these chemicals come in a lot of different shapes and forms. In fact, most of the people studying bisouncncmeilee today are focused on the chemistry, because these chemicals have proved so incredibly valuable for developing antibacterial agents, cancer fighting drugs, testing for the presence of life on Mars, dtcentieg pollutants in our wtears — which is how we use it at ORCA. In 2008, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded for work done on a molecule called geren fuleocrnest protein that was isolated from the bioluminescent chemistry of a jellyfish, and it's been equated to the invention of the microscope, in terms of the impact that it has had on cell biology and genetic engineering.

Open Cloze

So, how does a living ________ make _____? Well, that was the ________ that 19th century ______ physiologist Raphael ______, asked about this bioluminescent clam. He ground it up and he managed to get out a couple of chemicals; one, the enzyme, he called luciferase; the substrate, he called luciferin after _______ the Lightbearer. That ___________ has stuck, but it doesn't actually refer to specific chemicals because these chemicals come in a lot of different shapes and forms. In fact, most of the people studying _______________ today are focused on the chemistry, because these chemicals have proved so incredibly valuable for developing antibacterial agents, cancer fighting drugs, testing for the presence of life on Mars, _________ pollutants in our ______ — which is how we use it at ORCA. In 2008, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded for work done on a molecule called _____ ___________ protein that was isolated from the bioluminescent chemistry of a jellyfish, and it's been equated to the invention of the microscope, in terms of the impact that it has had on cell biology and genetic engineering.

Solution

  1. bioluminescence
  2. light
  3. waters
  4. question
  5. french
  6. lucifer
  7. green
  8. fluorescent
  9. detecting
  10. dubois
  11. terminology
  12. creature

Original Text

So, how does a living creature make light? Well, that was the question that 19th century French physiologist Raphael Dubois, asked about this bioluminescent clam. He ground it up and he managed to get out a couple of chemicals; one, the enzyme, he called luciferase; the substrate, he called luciferin after Lucifer the Lightbearer. That terminology has stuck, but it doesn't actually refer to specific chemicals because these chemicals come in a lot of different shapes and forms. In fact, most of the people studying bioluminescence today are focused on the chemistry, because these chemicals have proved so incredibly valuable for developing antibacterial agents, cancer fighting drugs, testing for the presence of life on Mars, detecting pollutants in our waters — which is how we use it at ORCA. In 2008, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded for work done on a molecule called green fluorescent protein that was isolated from the bioluminescent chemistry of a jellyfish, and it's been equated to the invention of the microscope, in terms of the impact that it has had on cell biology and genetic engineering.

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
red light 5
light organs 4
deep sea 4
electronic jellyfish 3
blue light 3

Important Words

  1. agents
  2. antibacterial
  3. asked
  4. awarded
  5. biology
  6. bioluminescence
  7. bioluminescent
  8. called
  9. cancer
  10. cell
  11. century
  12. chemicals
  13. chemistry
  14. clam
  15. couple
  16. creature
  17. detecting
  18. developing
  19. drugs
  20. dubois
  21. engineering
  22. enzyme
  23. equated
  24. fact
  25. fighting
  26. fluorescent
  27. focused
  28. forms
  29. french
  30. genetic
  31. green
  32. ground
  33. impact
  34. incredibly
  35. invention
  36. isolated
  37. jellyfish
  38. life
  39. light
  40. lightbearer
  41. living
  42. lot
  43. lucifer
  44. luciferin
  45. managed
  46. mars
  47. microscope
  48. molecule
  49. nobel
  50. orca
  51. people
  52. physiologist
  53. pollutants
  54. presence
  55. prize
  56. protein
  57. proved
  58. question
  59. raphael
  60. refer
  61. shapes
  62. specific
  63. stuck
  64. studying
  65. substrate
  66. terminology
  67. terms
  68. testing
  69. today
  70. valuable
  71. waters
  72. work