full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Andrea M. Henle: How CRISPR lets you edit DNA

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Surprisingly, CRISPR is actually a natural process that’s long functioned as a bacterial imnmue ssteym. Originally found defending single-celled bacteria and archaea against invading vseuris, natlaurly occurring CRISPR uses two main components. The first are short snippets of repetitive DNA sequences called “clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats,” or simply, CRISPRs. The second are Cas, or “CRISPR-associated” ptnoeris which chop up DNA like macoeullr scrosiss. When a virus invades a bacterium, Cas proteins cut out a segment of the viral DNA to stitch into the bacterium’s CRISPR region, cunprtaig a ceaimchl snapshot of the infection. Those viral codes are then copied into sohrt pecies of RNA. This molecule plays many roles in our cells, but in the case of CRISPR, RNA binds to a scepail protein called Cas9. The resulting complexes act like scouts, latching onto free-floating genetic material and seairnhcg for a match to the virus. If the virus invades again, the scout complex recognizes it iedmtealimy, and Cas9 swiftly destroys the viral DNA.

Open Cloze

Surprisingly, CRISPR is actually a natural process that’s long functioned as a bacterial ______ ______. Originally found defending single-celled bacteria and archaea against invading _______, _________ occurring CRISPR uses two main components. The first are short snippets of repetitive DNA sequences called “clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats,” or simply, CRISPRs. The second are Cas, or “CRISPR-associated” ________ which chop up DNA like _________ ________. When a virus invades a bacterium, Cas proteins cut out a segment of the viral DNA to stitch into the bacterium’s CRISPR region, _________ a ________ snapshot of the infection. Those viral codes are then copied into _____ ______ of RNA. This molecule plays many roles in our cells, but in the case of CRISPR, RNA binds to a _______ protein called Cas9. The resulting complexes act like scouts, latching onto free-floating genetic material and _________ for a match to the virus. If the virus invades again, the scout complex recognizes it ___________, and Cas9 swiftly destroys the viral DNA.

Solution

  1. system
  2. immune
  3. naturally
  4. immediately
  5. proteins
  6. short
  7. scissors
  8. capturing
  9. molecular
  10. pieces
  11. searching
  12. chemical
  13. special
  14. viruses

Original Text

Surprisingly, CRISPR is actually a natural process that’s long functioned as a bacterial immune system. Originally found defending single-celled bacteria and archaea against invading viruses, naturally occurring CRISPR uses two main components. The first are short snippets of repetitive DNA sequences called “clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats,” or simply, CRISPRs. The second are Cas, or “CRISPR-associated” proteins which chop up DNA like molecular scissors. When a virus invades a bacterium, Cas proteins cut out a segment of the viral DNA to stitch into the bacterium’s CRISPR region, capturing a chemical snapshot of the infection. Those viral codes are then copied into short pieces of RNA. This molecule plays many roles in our cells, but in the case of CRISPR, RNA binds to a special protein called Cas9. The resulting complexes act like scouts, latching onto free-floating genetic material and searching for a match to the virus. If the virus invades again, the scout complex recognizes it immediately, and Cas9 swiftly destroys the viral DNA.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
gene editing 2
immune system 2
molecular scissors 2
virus invades 2
viral dna 2
guide rna 2
template dna 2

Important Words

  1. act
  2. archaea
  3. bacteria
  4. bacterial
  5. bacterium
  6. binds
  7. called
  8. capturing
  9. cas
  10. case
  11. cells
  12. chemical
  13. chop
  14. codes
  15. complex
  16. complexes
  17. components
  18. copied
  19. crispr
  20. crisprs
  21. cut
  22. defending
  23. destroys
  24. dna
  25. functioned
  26. genetic
  27. immediately
  28. immune
  29. infection
  30. interspaced
  31. invades
  32. invading
  33. latching
  34. long
  35. main
  36. match
  37. material
  38. molecular
  39. molecule
  40. natural
  41. naturally
  42. occurring
  43. originally
  44. palindromic
  45. pieces
  46. plays
  47. process
  48. protein
  49. proteins
  50. recognizes
  51. region
  52. regularly
  53. repeats
  54. repetitive
  55. resulting
  56. rna
  57. roles
  58. scissors
  59. scout
  60. scouts
  61. searching
  62. segment
  63. sequences
  64. short
  65. simply
  66. snapshot
  67. snippets
  68. special
  69. stitch
  70. surprisingly
  71. swiftly
  72. system
  73. viral
  74. virus
  75. viruses