full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Gabriela González: How LIGO discovered gravitational waves -- and what might be next

Unscramble the Blue Letters

It took us a long time to figure out the effects of these gravitational waves, because the way we measure them is by looking for effcets in distances. We want to measure ltoednuigs, distances. When these gravitational waves passed by Earth, which was in 2015, they produced changes in all distances — the distances between all of you, the dsanecits between you and me, our heights — every one of us stretched and shrank a tiny bit. The prediction is that the effect is proportional to the distance. But it's very small: even for distances much greater than my slight hghiet, the effect is infinitesimal. For example, the distance between the etarh and the Sun changed by one atomic diameter. How can that be meseruad? How could we measure it?

Open Cloze

It took us a long time to figure out the effects of these gravitational waves, because the way we measure them is by looking for _______ in distances. We want to measure __________, distances. When these gravitational waves passed by Earth, which was in 2015, they produced changes in all distances — the distances between all of you, the _________ between you and me, our heights — every one of us stretched and shrank a tiny bit. The prediction is that the effect is proportional to the distance. But it's very small: even for distances much greater than my slight ______, the effect is infinitesimal. For example, the distance between the _____ and the Sun changed by one atomic diameter. How can that be ________? How could we measure it?

Solution

  1. earth
  2. height
  3. effects
  4. longitudes
  5. distances
  6. measured

Original Text

It took us a long time to figure out the effects of these gravitational waves, because the way we measure them is by looking for effects in distances. We want to measure longitudes, distances. When these gravitational waves passed by Earth, which was in 2015, they produced changes in all distances — the distances between all of you, the distances between you and me, our heights — every one of us stretched and shrank a tiny bit. The prediction is that the effect is proportional to the distance. But it's very small: even for distances much greater than my slight height, the effect is infinitesimal. For example, the distance between the Earth and the Sun changed by one atomic diameter. How can that be measured? How could we measure it?

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
gravitational waves 9
black holes 6
gravitational wave 4
billion years 2
long time 2

Important Words

  1. atomic
  2. bit
  3. changed
  4. diameter
  5. distance
  6. distances
  7. earth
  8. effect
  9. effects
  10. figure
  11. gravitational
  12. greater
  13. height
  14. heights
  15. infinitesimal
  16. long
  17. longitudes
  18. measure
  19. measured
  20. passed
  21. prediction
  22. produced
  23. proportional
  24. shrank
  25. slight
  26. stretched
  27. sun
  28. time
  29. tiny
  30. waves