full transcript
"From the Ted Talk by Gabriela GonzÃ¡lez: How LIGO discovered gravitational waves -- and what might be next"

#### Unscramble the Blue Letters

At first, we couldn't believe it. We didn't imagine this would haeppn until much later; it was a spruisre for all of us. It took us months to civoncne ourselves that it was true, because we didn't want to leave any room for error. But it was true, and to clear up any doubt that the detectors really could measure these things, in December of that same year, we maurseed another gravitational wave, smaller than the first one. The first gravitational wave produced a dfinfcreee in the distance of four-thousandths of a proton over four kilometers. Yes, the second detection was selamlr, but still very convincing by our standards. Despite the fact that these are space-time waves and not sound waves, we like to put them into loudspeakers and listen to them. We call this "the music of the usiverne." I'd like you to listen to the first two notes of that music.

#### Open Cloze

At first, we couldn't believe it. We didn't imagine this would ______ until much later; it was a ________ for all of us. It took us months to ________ ourselves that it was true, because we didn't want to leave any room for error. But it was true, and to clear up any doubt that the detectors really could measure these things, in December of that same year, we ________ another gravitational wave, smaller than the first one. The first gravitational wave produced a __________ in the distance of four-thousandths of a proton over four kilometers. Yes, the second detection was _______, but still very convincing by our standards. Despite the fact that these are space-time waves and not sound waves, we like to put them into loudspeakers and listen to them. We call this "the music of the ________." I'd like you to listen to the first two notes of that music.

1. measured
2. difference
3. universe
4. happen
5. surprise
6. convince
7. smaller

#### Original Text

At first, we couldn't believe it. We didn't imagine this would happen until much later; it was a surprise for all of us. It took us months to convince ourselves that it was true, because we didn't want to leave any room for error. But it was true, and to clear up any doubt that the detectors really could measure these things, in December of that same year, we measured another gravitational wave, smaller than the first one. The first gravitational wave produced a difference in the distance of four-thousandths of a proton over four kilometers. Yes, the second detection was smaller, but still very convincing by our standards. Despite the fact that these are space-time waves and not sound waves, we like to put them into loudspeakers and listen to them. We call this "the music of the universe." I'd like you to listen to the first two notes of that music.

#### ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
gravitational waves 12
black holes 6
space time 5
gravitational wave 5
chirping sound 4

#### Important Words

1. call
2. clear
3. convince
4. convincing
5. december
6. detection
7. detectors
8. difference
9. distance
10. doubt
11. error
12. fact
13. gravitational
14. happen
15. imagine
16. kilometers
17. leave
18. listen
19. loudspeakers
20. measure
21. measured
22. months
23. music
24. notes
25. produced
26. proton
27. put
28. room
29. smaller
30. sound
31. standards
32. surprise
33. true
34. universe
35. wave
36. waves
37. year