full transcript

## Unscramble the Blue Letters

It took us a long time to figure out the effects of these gravitational waves, because the way we measure them is by looking for effcets in distances. We want to measure ltoednuigs, distances. When these gravitational waves passed by Earth, which was in 2015, they produced changes in all distances — the distances between all of you, the dsanecits between you and me, our heights — every one of us stretched and shrank a tiny bit. The prediction is that the effect is proportional to the distance. But it's very small: even for distances much greater than my slight hghiet, the effect is infinitesimal. For example, the distance between the etarh and the Sun changed by one atomic diameter. How can that be meseruad? How could we measure it?

## Open Cloze

It took us a long time to figure out the effects of these gravitational waves, because the way we measure them is by looking for _______ in distances. We want to measure __________, distances. When these gravitational waves passed by Earth, which was in 2015, they produced changes in all distances — the distances between all of you, the _________ between you and me, our heights — every one of us stretched and shrank a tiny bit. The prediction is that the effect is proportional to the distance. But it's very small: even for distances much greater than my slight ______, the effect is infinitesimal. For example, the distance between the _____ and the Sun changed by one atomic diameter. How can that be ________? How could we measure it?

1. earth
2. height
3. effects
4. longitudes
5. distances
6. measured

## Original Text

It took us a long time to figure out the effects of these gravitational waves, because the way we measure them is by looking for effects in distances. We want to measure longitudes, distances. When these gravitational waves passed by Earth, which was in 2015, they produced changes in all distances — the distances between all of you, the distances between you and me, our heights — every one of us stretched and shrank a tiny bit. The prediction is that the effect is proportional to the distance. But it's very small: even for distances much greater than my slight height, the effect is infinitesimal. For example, the distance between the Earth and the Sun changed by one atomic diameter. How can that be measured? How could we measure it?

## Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

### ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
gravitational waves 9
black holes 6
gravitational wave 4
billion years 2
long time 2

## Important Words

1. atomic
2. bit
3. changed
4. diameter
5. distance
6. distances
7. earth
8. effect
9. effects
10. figure
11. gravitational
12. greater
13. height
14. heights
15. infinitesimal
16. long
17. longitudes
18. measure
19. measured
20. passed
21. prediction
22. produced
23. proportional
24. shrank
25. slight
26. stretched
27. sun
28. time
29. tiny
30. waves