full transcript
#### From the Ted Talk by Gabriela González: How LIGO discovered gravitational waves -- and what might be next

## Unscramble the Blue Letters

It took us a long time to figure out the effects of these gravitational waves, because the way we measure them is by looking for effcets in distances. We want to measure ltoednuigs, distances. When these gravitational waves passed by Earth, which was in 2015, they produced changes in all distances — the distances between all of you, the dsanecits between you and me, our heights — every one of us stretched and shrank a tiny bit. The prediction is that the effect is proportional to the distance. But it's very small: even for distances much greater than my slight hghiet, the effect is infinitesimal. For example, the distance between the etarh and the Sun changed by one atomic diameter. How can that be meseruad? How could we measure it?
## Open Cloze

It took us a long time to figure out the effects of these gravitational waves, because the way we measure them is by looking for **_______** in distances. We want to measure **__________**, distances. When these gravitational waves passed by Earth, which was in 2015, they produced changes in all distances — the distances between all of you, the **_________** between you and me, our heights — every one of us stretched and shrank a tiny bit. The prediction is that the effect is proportional to the distance. But it's very small: even for distances much greater than my slight **______**, the effect is infinitesimal. For example, the distance between the **_____** and the Sun changed by one atomic diameter. How can that be **________**? How could we measure it?
## Solution

- earth
- height
- effects
- longitudes
- distances
- measured

## Original Text

It took us a long time to figure out the effects of these gravitational waves, because the way we measure them is by looking for effects in distances. We want to measure longitudes, distances. When these gravitational waves passed by Earth, which was in 2015, they produced changes in all distances — the distances between all of you, the distances between you and me, our heights — every one of us stretched and shrank a tiny bit. The prediction is that the effect is proportional to the distance. But it's very small: even for distances much greater than my slight height, the effect is infinitesimal. For example, the distance between the Earth and the Sun changed by one atomic diameter. How can that be measured? How could we measure it?
## Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

### ngrams of length 2

collocation |
frequency |

gravitational waves |
9 |

black holes |
6 |

gravitational wave |
4 |

billion years |
2 |

long time |
2 |

## Important Words

- atomic
- bit
- changed
- diameter
- distance
- distances
- earth
- effect
- effects
- figure
- gravitational
- greater
- height
- heights
- infinitesimal
- long
- longitudes
- measure
- measured
- passed
- prediction
- produced
- proportional
- shrank
- slight
- stretched
- sun
- time
- tiny
- waves