full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Michael Dickinson: How a fly flies

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Now, how does this compare to a fly? Well, I spent a lot of my early career trying to figure out how insect wings generate enough force to keep the flies in the air. And you might have heard how engineers pevord that bmebuelbes couldn't fly. Well, the problem was in tiiknnhg that the insect wings function in the way that aircraft wings work. But they don't. And we tackle this problem by building giant, dnlmlyicaay scaled model roobt insects that would flap in giant pools of mineral oil where we could study the aerodynamic forces. And it turns out that the insects flap their wgnis in a very clever way, at a very high angle of attack that creates a structure at the leading edge of the wing, a little tornado-like structure called a leading edge vortex, and it's that vetrox that actually enables the wings to make enough force for the animal to stay in the air. But the thing that's actually most — so, what's faisainntcg is not so much that the wing has some iiterntesng mhgooorlpy. What's clever is the way the fly flaps it, which of course ultimately is cnrlltooed by the nervous system, and this is what enables flies to perform these remarkable ariael muevarens.

Open Cloze

Now, how does this compare to a fly? Well, I spent a lot of my early career trying to figure out how insect wings generate enough force to keep the flies in the air. And you might have heard how engineers ______ that __________ couldn't fly. Well, the problem was in ________ that the insect wings function in the way that aircraft wings work. But they don't. And we tackle this problem by building giant, ___________ scaled model _____ insects that would flap in giant pools of mineral oil where we could study the aerodynamic forces. And it turns out that the insects flap their _____ in a very clever way, at a very high angle of attack that creates a structure at the leading edge of the wing, a little tornado-like structure called a leading edge vortex, and it's that ______ that actually enables the wings to make enough force for the animal to stay in the air. But the thing that's actually most — so, what's ___________ is not so much that the wing has some ___________ __________. What's clever is the way the fly flaps it, which of course ultimately is __________ by the nervous system, and this is what enables flies to perform these remarkable ______ _________.

Solution

  1. bumblebees
  2. morphology
  3. controlled
  4. robot
  5. interesting
  6. dynamically
  7. fascinating
  8. thinking
  9. proved
  10. vortex
  11. aerial
  12. maneuvers
  13. wings

Original Text

Now, how does this compare to a fly? Well, I spent a lot of my early career trying to figure out how insect wings generate enough force to keep the flies in the air. And you might have heard how engineers proved that bumblebees couldn't fly. Well, the problem was in thinking that the insect wings function in the way that aircraft wings work. But they don't. And we tackle this problem by building giant, dynamically scaled model robot insects that would flap in giant pools of mineral oil where we could study the aerodynamic forces. And it turns out that the insects flap their wings in a very clever way, at a very high angle of attack that creates a structure at the leading edge of the wing, a little tornado-like structure called a leading edge vortex, and it's that vortex that actually enables the wings to make enough force for the animal to stay in the air. But the thing that's actually most — so, what's fascinating is not so much that the wing has some interesting morphology. What's clever is the way the fly flaps it, which of course ultimately is controlled by the nervous system, and this is what enables flies to perform these remarkable aerial maneuvers.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
fruit flies 4
star trek 3
fruit fly 3
aerodynamic forces 3
trump number 3
visual interneuron 3
insect flight 2
flies excel 2
power required 2
insect wings 2
leading edge 2
structure called 2
nervous system 2
simple model 2
great model 2
behavioral repertoire 2
tiny neurons 2
tiny ganglion 2
malcolm burrows 2
action potentials 2

Important Words

  1. aerial
  2. aerodynamic
  3. air
  4. aircraft
  5. angle
  6. animal
  7. attack
  8. building
  9. bumblebees
  10. called
  11. career
  12. clever
  13. compare
  14. controlled
  15. creates
  16. dynamically
  17. early
  18. edge
  19. enables
  20. engineers
  21. fascinating
  22. figure
  23. flap
  24. flaps
  25. flies
  26. fly
  27. force
  28. forces
  29. function
  30. generate
  31. giant
  32. heard
  33. high
  34. insect
  35. insects
  36. interesting
  37. leading
  38. lot
  39. maneuvers
  40. mineral
  41. model
  42. morphology
  43. nervous
  44. oil
  45. perform
  46. pools
  47. problem
  48. proved
  49. remarkable
  50. robot
  51. scaled
  52. spent
  53. stay
  54. structure
  55. study
  56. system
  57. tackle
  58. thinking
  59. turns
  60. ultimately
  61. vortex
  62. wing
  63. wings
  64. work