full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Melody Smith: How bones make blood

Unscramble the Blue Letters

A bone morraw transplant can also lead to something called graft-versus-tumor activity, when new immune cells generated by the donated marrow can wipe out cancer cells the recipient’s original immune system couldn’t. This phenomenon can help eradicate sobbutrn boold cancers. But bone marrow tasptnnalrs also come with risks, including graft-versus-host disease. It happens when the immune system generated by the doonr cells atatcks the patient’s organs. This life-threatening condition occurs in about 30–50% of patients who receive donor cells from anyone other than an icinadetl twin, particularly when the stem cells are collected from the blood as opposed to the bone marrow.

Open Cloze

A bone ______ transplant can also lead to something called graft-versus-tumor activity, when new immune cells generated by the donated marrow can wipe out cancer cells the recipient’s original immune system couldn’t. This phenomenon can help eradicate ________ _____ cancers. But bone marrow ___________ also come with risks, including graft-versus-host disease. It happens when the immune system generated by the _____ cells _______ the patient’s organs. This life-threatening condition occurs in about 30–50% of patients who receive donor cells from anyone other than an _________ twin, particularly when the stem cells are collected from the blood as opposed to the bone marrow.

Solution

  1. stubborn
  2. transplants
  3. blood
  4. donor
  5. identical
  6. attacks
  7. marrow

Original Text

A bone marrow transplant can also lead to something called graft-versus-tumor activity, when new immune cells generated by the donated marrow can wipe out cancer cells the recipient’s original immune system couldn’t. This phenomenon can help eradicate stubborn blood cancers. But bone marrow transplants also come with risks, including graft-versus-host disease. It happens when the immune system generated by the donor cells attacks the patient’s organs. This life-threatening condition occurs in about 30–50% of patients who receive donor cells from anyone other than an identical twin, particularly when the stem cells are collected from the blood as opposed to the bone marrow.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
bone marrow 9
stem cells 9
blood stem 5
donor cells 5
immune system 5
blood cells 3
blood cancers 3
blood vessels 2
marrow transplant 2
immune cells 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
blood stem cells 5
bone marrow transplant 2

Important Words

  1. activity
  2. attacks
  3. blood
  4. bone
  5. called
  6. cancer
  7. cancers
  8. cells
  9. collected
  10. condition
  11. disease
  12. donated
  13. donor
  14. eradicate
  15. generated
  16. identical
  17. immune
  18. including
  19. lead
  20. marrow
  21. occurs
  22. opposed
  23. organs
  24. original
  25. patients
  26. phenomenon
  27. receive
  28. risks
  29. stem
  30. stubborn
  31. system
  32. transplant
  33. transplants
  34. twin
  35. wipe