full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Hasini Jayatilaka: How cancer cells communicate -- and how we can slow them down

Unscramble the Blue Letters

mttsseiaas is a spread of cancer from a primary site to a distal site, through the circulatory or the lymphatic system. For instance, a fmlaee patient with basert cceanr doesn't succumb to the disease simply because she has a mass on her breast. She succumbs to the disease because it spreads to the lugns, lveir, lymph nodes, brain, bone, where it becomes unresectable or untreatable. Metastasis is a complicated process. One that I've sdeutid for several years now. And something that my team and I discovered recently was that cancer clels are able to communicate with each other and coordinate their movement, based on how closely packed they are in the tumor microenvironment. They communicate with each other through two signaling molecules called Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-8.

Open Cloze

__________ is a spread of cancer from a primary site to a distal site, through the circulatory or the lymphatic system. For instance, a ______ patient with ______ ______ doesn't succumb to the disease simply because she has a mass on her breast. She succumbs to the disease because it spreads to the _____, _____, lymph nodes, brain, bone, where it becomes unresectable or untreatable. Metastasis is a complicated process. One that I've _______ for several years now. And something that my team and I discovered recently was that cancer _____ are able to communicate with each other and coordinate their movement, based on how closely packed they are in the tumor microenvironment. They communicate with each other through two signaling molecules called Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-8.

Solution

  1. studied
  2. cancer
  3. cells
  4. breast
  5. lungs
  6. metastasis
  7. liver
  8. female

Original Text

Metastasis is a spread of cancer from a primary site to a distal site, through the circulatory or the lymphatic system. For instance, a female patient with breast cancer doesn't succumb to the disease simply because she has a mass on her breast. She succumbs to the disease because it spreads to the lungs, liver, lymph nodes, brain, bone, where it becomes unresectable or untreatable. Metastasis is a complicated process. One that I've studied for several years now. And something that my team and I discovered recently was that cancer cells are able to communicate with each other and coordinate their movement, based on how closely packed they are in the tumor microenvironment. They communicate with each other through two signaling molecules called Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-8.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
cancer cells 11
drug cocktail 3
hasini effect 3
primary site 2
breast cancer 2
closely packed 2
tumor microenvironment 2
plastic dishes 2
cells communicate 2
signaling pathway 2
clinical trials 2
tumor growth 2
terrible disease 2

Important Words

  1. based
  2. bone
  3. brain
  4. breast
  5. called
  6. cancer
  7. cells
  8. circulatory
  9. closely
  10. communicate
  11. complicated
  12. coordinate
  13. discovered
  14. disease
  15. distal
  16. female
  17. instance
  18. liver
  19. lungs
  20. lymph
  21. lymphatic
  22. mass
  23. metastasis
  24. microenvironment
  25. molecules
  26. movement
  27. nodes
  28. packed
  29. patient
  30. primary
  31. process
  32. signaling
  33. simply
  34. site
  35. spread
  36. spreads
  37. studied
  38. succumb
  39. succumbs
  40. system
  41. team
  42. tumor
  43. unresectable
  44. untreatable
  45. years