full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Richard J. Wood: How do carbohydrates impact your health?

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Which of these has the least carbohydrates? This roll of bread? This bowl of rice? Or this can of soda? It's a trick question. Although they may differ in fats, vitamins, and other nutritional content, when it comes to carbs, they're pttrey much the same. So what exactly does that mean for your diet? First of all, carbohydrate is the nutritional crgtoeay for sugars and molecules that your body breaks down to make sugars. Carbohydrates can be simple or cmleopx depending on their structure. This is a simple sugar, or monosaccharide. Glucose, fructose, and galactose are all simple sugars. Link two of them together, and you've got a disaccharide, lactose, maltose, or surcose. Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand, have three or more simple sugars srutng together. Complex carbohydrates with three to ten linked sugars are oaidraloccigeshs. Those with more than ten are polysaccharides. During digestion, your body breaks down those complex carbohydrates into their monosaccharide building blocks, which your clles can use for enegry. So when you eat any carbohydrate-rich food, the saugr level in your blood, normally about a teaspoon, goes up. But your digestive tract doesn't respond to all carbohydrates the same. Consider starch and fiber, both polysaccharides, both derived from plants, both composed of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides joined together, but they're joined together detfrilenfy, and that changes the effect they have on your body. In starches, which ptnlas mostly sotre for energy in roots and sedes, glucose molecules are joined together by alpha linkages, most of which can be easily caleevd by enzymes in your digestive trcat. But in fiber, the bonds between monosaccharide molecules are beta bonds, which your body can't break down. Fiber can also trap some starches, preventing them from being cleaved, resulting in something called resistant starch. So foods high in starch, like crackers and white bread, are dgitseed easily, quickly releasing a whole bunch of glucose into your blood, exactly what would happen if you drank something high in gluosce, like soda. These foods have a high glycemic index, the amount that a particular food raises the sugar level in your blood. Soda and white bread have a smliiar glycemic index because they have a similar effect on your blood sugar. But when you eat foods high in febir, like vegetables, fruits, and whole grains, those indigestible beta bodns slow the release of glucose into the blood. Those foods have a lower glmieycc index, and fdoos like eggs, csehee, and meats have the lowest glycemic index. When sugar meovs from the digestive tract to the blood stream, your body kicks into action to transfer it into your tseuiss where it can be processed and used for energy. Insulin, a hormone synthesized in the pancreas, is one of the body's main tloos for sugar management. When you eat and your blood sugar rises, insulin is secreted into the blood. It prompts your muscle and fat cells to let glucose in and jump starts the cionverosn of sugar to energy. The degree to which a unit of insulin lreows the blood sugar helps us understand something called insulin sensitivity. The more a given unit of insulin lowers bolod sugar, the more sitinesve you are to isnliun. If insulin sensitivity goes down, that's known as insulin resistance. The pancreas still sneds out insulin, but cells, especially muscle cells, are less and less responsive to it, so blood sugar fails to decrease, and blood insulin continues to rise. Chronically csmnounig a lot of carbohydrates may lead to insulin resistance, and many sitcteniss believe that insulin rstiesnace leads to a serious condition called metabolic sdmnroye. That ineolvvs a constellation of symptoms, including high blood sugar, increased waist circumference, and high blood psrrseue. It increases the risk of developing cotidnnios, like cardiovascular disease and type II detibaes. And its prevalence is rapidly increasing all over the world. As much as 32% of the pualoiotpn in the U.S. has metabolic syndrome. So let's get back to your diet. Whether your food tastes sweet or not, sugar is sugar, and too many carbs can be a problem. So maybe you'll want to take a pass on that pasta sushi roll pita burrito donut burger snadciwh.

Open Cloze

Which of these has the least carbohydrates? This roll of bread? This bowl of rice? Or this can of soda? It's a trick question. Although they may differ in fats, vitamins, and other nutritional content, when it comes to carbs, they're ______ much the same. So what exactly does that mean for your diet? First of all, carbohydrate is the nutritional ________ for sugars and molecules that your body breaks down to make sugars. Carbohydrates can be simple or _______ depending on their structure. This is a simple sugar, or monosaccharide. Glucose, fructose, and galactose are all simple sugars. Link two of them together, and you've got a disaccharide, lactose, maltose, or _______. Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand, have three or more simple sugars ______ together. Complex carbohydrates with three to ten linked sugars are ________________. Those with more than ten are polysaccharides. During digestion, your body breaks down those complex carbohydrates into their monosaccharide building blocks, which your _____ can use for ______. So when you eat any carbohydrate-rich food, the _____ level in your blood, normally about a teaspoon, goes up. But your digestive tract doesn't respond to all carbohydrates the same. Consider starch and fiber, both polysaccharides, both derived from plants, both composed of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides joined together, but they're joined together ___________, and that changes the effect they have on your body. In starches, which ______ mostly _____ for energy in roots and _____, glucose molecules are joined together by alpha linkages, most of which can be easily _______ by enzymes in your digestive _____. But in fiber, the bonds between monosaccharide molecules are beta bonds, which your body can't break down. Fiber can also trap some starches, preventing them from being cleaved, resulting in something called resistant starch. So foods high in starch, like crackers and white bread, are ________ easily, quickly releasing a whole bunch of glucose into your blood, exactly what would happen if you drank something high in _______, like soda. These foods have a high glycemic index, the amount that a particular food raises the sugar level in your blood. Soda and white bread have a _______ glycemic index because they have a similar effect on your blood sugar. But when you eat foods high in _____, like vegetables, fruits, and whole grains, those indigestible beta _____ slow the release of glucose into the blood. Those foods have a lower ________ index, and _____ like eggs, ______, and meats have the lowest glycemic index. When sugar _____ from the digestive tract to the blood stream, your body kicks into action to transfer it into your _______ where it can be processed and used for energy. Insulin, a hormone synthesized in the pancreas, is one of the body's main _____ for sugar management. When you eat and your blood sugar rises, insulin is secreted into the blood. It prompts your muscle and fat cells to let glucose in and jump starts the __________ of sugar to energy. The degree to which a unit of insulin ______ the blood sugar helps us understand something called insulin sensitivity. The more a given unit of insulin lowers _____ sugar, the more _________ you are to _______. If insulin sensitivity goes down, that's known as insulin resistance. The pancreas still _____ out insulin, but cells, especially muscle cells, are less and less responsive to it, so blood sugar fails to decrease, and blood insulin continues to rise. Chronically _________ a lot of carbohydrates may lead to insulin resistance, and many __________ believe that insulin __________ leads to a serious condition called metabolic ________. That ________ a constellation of symptoms, including high blood sugar, increased waist circumference, and high blood ________. It increases the risk of developing __________, like cardiovascular disease and type II ________. And its prevalence is rapidly increasing all over the world. As much as 32% of the __________ in the U.S. has metabolic syndrome. So let's get back to your diet. Whether your food tastes sweet or not, sugar is sugar, and too many carbs can be a problem. So maybe you'll want to take a pass on that pasta sushi roll pita burrito donut burger ________.

Solution

  1. involves
  2. store
  3. bonds
  4. cleaved
  5. resistance
  6. pretty
  7. similar
  8. sugar
  9. plants
  10. category
  11. glycemic
  12. conversion
  13. pressure
  14. sensitive
  15. insulin
  16. energy
  17. tools
  18. blood
  19. digested
  20. sandwich
  21. glucose
  22. oligosaccharides
  23. tract
  24. cheese
  25. seeds
  26. tissues
  27. scientists
  28. sends
  29. population
  30. foods
  31. conditions
  32. complex
  33. cells
  34. strung
  35. lowers
  36. fiber
  37. consuming
  38. syndrome
  39. sucrose
  40. diabetes
  41. differently
  42. moves

Original Text

Which of these has the least carbohydrates? This roll of bread? This bowl of rice? Or this can of soda? It's a trick question. Although they may differ in fats, vitamins, and other nutritional content, when it comes to carbs, they're pretty much the same. So what exactly does that mean for your diet? First of all, carbohydrate is the nutritional category for sugars and molecules that your body breaks down to make sugars. Carbohydrates can be simple or complex depending on their structure. This is a simple sugar, or monosaccharide. Glucose, fructose, and galactose are all simple sugars. Link two of them together, and you've got a disaccharide, lactose, maltose, or sucrose. Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand, have three or more simple sugars strung together. Complex carbohydrates with three to ten linked sugars are oligosaccharides. Those with more than ten are polysaccharides. During digestion, your body breaks down those complex carbohydrates into their monosaccharide building blocks, which your cells can use for energy. So when you eat any carbohydrate-rich food, the sugar level in your blood, normally about a teaspoon, goes up. But your digestive tract doesn't respond to all carbohydrates the same. Consider starch and fiber, both polysaccharides, both derived from plants, both composed of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides joined together, but they're joined together differently, and that changes the effect they have on your body. In starches, which plants mostly store for energy in roots and seeds, glucose molecules are joined together by alpha linkages, most of which can be easily cleaved by enzymes in your digestive tract. But in fiber, the bonds between monosaccharide molecules are beta bonds, which your body can't break down. Fiber can also trap some starches, preventing them from being cleaved, resulting in something called resistant starch. So foods high in starch, like crackers and white bread, are digested easily, quickly releasing a whole bunch of glucose into your blood, exactly what would happen if you drank something high in glucose, like soda. These foods have a high glycemic index, the amount that a particular food raises the sugar level in your blood. Soda and white bread have a similar glycemic index because they have a similar effect on your blood sugar. But when you eat foods high in fiber, like vegetables, fruits, and whole grains, those indigestible beta bonds slow the release of glucose into the blood. Those foods have a lower glycemic index, and foods like eggs, cheese, and meats have the lowest glycemic index. When sugar moves from the digestive tract to the blood stream, your body kicks into action to transfer it into your tissues where it can be processed and used for energy. Insulin, a hormone synthesized in the pancreas, is one of the body's main tools for sugar management. When you eat and your blood sugar rises, insulin is secreted into the blood. It prompts your muscle and fat cells to let glucose in and jump starts the conversion of sugar to energy. The degree to which a unit of insulin lowers the blood sugar helps us understand something called insulin sensitivity. The more a given unit of insulin lowers blood sugar, the more sensitive you are to insulin. If insulin sensitivity goes down, that's known as insulin resistance. The pancreas still sends out insulin, but cells, especially muscle cells, are less and less responsive to it, so blood sugar fails to decrease, and blood insulin continues to rise. Chronically consuming a lot of carbohydrates may lead to insulin resistance, and many scientists believe that insulin resistance leads to a serious condition called metabolic syndrome. That involves a constellation of symptoms, including high blood sugar, increased waist circumference, and high blood pressure. It increases the risk of developing conditions, like cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes. And its prevalence is rapidly increasing all over the world. As much as 32% of the population in the U.S. has metabolic syndrome. So let's get back to your diet. Whether your food tastes sweet or not, sugar is sugar, and too many carbs can be a problem. So maybe you'll want to take a pass on that pasta sushi roll pita burrito donut burger sandwich.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
blood sugar 4
digestive tract 3
body breaks 2
simple sugars 2
complex carbohydrates 2
sugar level 2
foods high 2
glycemic index 2
insulin lowers 2
insulin sensitivity 2
insulin resistance 2
metabolic syndrome 2
high blood 2

Important Words

  1. action
  2. alpha
  3. amount
  4. beta
  5. blocks
  6. blood
  7. body
  8. bonds
  9. bowl
  10. bread
  11. break
  12. breaks
  13. building
  14. bunch
  15. burger
  16. burrito
  17. called
  18. carbohydrate
  19. carbohydrates
  20. carbs
  21. cardiovascular
  22. category
  23. cells
  24. cheese
  25. chronically
  26. circumference
  27. cleaved
  28. complex
  29. composed
  30. condition
  31. conditions
  32. constellation
  33. consuming
  34. content
  35. continues
  36. conversion
  37. crackers
  38. decrease
  39. degree
  40. depending
  41. derived
  42. developing
  43. diabetes
  44. diet
  45. differ
  46. differently
  47. digested
  48. digestion
  49. digestive
  50. disaccharide
  51. disease
  52. donut
  53. drank
  54. easily
  55. eat
  56. effect
  57. eggs
  58. energy
  59. enzymes
  60. fails
  61. fat
  62. fats
  63. fiber
  64. food
  65. foods
  66. fructose
  67. fruits
  68. galactose
  69. glucose
  70. glycemic
  71. grains
  72. hand
  73. happen
  74. helps
  75. high
  76. hormone
  77. hundreds
  78. ii
  79. including
  80. increased
  81. increases
  82. increasing
  83. index
  84. indigestible
  85. insulin
  86. involves
  87. joined
  88. jump
  89. kicks
  90. lactose
  91. lead
  92. leads
  93. level
  94. link
  95. linkages
  96. linked
  97. lot
  98. lowers
  99. lowest
  100. main
  101. maltose
  102. management
  103. meats
  104. metabolic
  105. molecules
  106. monosaccharide
  107. monosaccharides
  108. moves
  109. muscle
  110. nutritional
  111. oligosaccharides
  112. pancreas
  113. pass
  114. pasta
  115. pita
  116. plants
  117. polysaccharides
  118. population
  119. pressure
  120. pretty
  121. prevalence
  122. preventing
  123. problem
  124. processed
  125. prompts
  126. question
  127. quickly
  128. raises
  129. rapidly
  130. release
  131. releasing
  132. resistance
  133. resistant
  134. respond
  135. responsive
  136. resulting
  137. rice
  138. rise
  139. rises
  140. risk
  141. roll
  142. roots
  143. sandwich
  144. scientists
  145. secreted
  146. seeds
  147. sends
  148. sensitive
  149. sensitivity
  150. similar
  151. simple
  152. slow
  153. soda
  154. starch
  155. starches
  156. starts
  157. store
  158. stream
  159. structure
  160. strung
  161. sucrose
  162. sugar
  163. sugars
  164. sushi
  165. sweet
  166. symptoms
  167. syndrome
  168. synthesized
  169. tastes
  170. teaspoon
  171. ten
  172. thousands
  173. tissues
  174. tools
  175. tract
  176. transfer
  177. trap
  178. trick
  179. type
  180. understand
  181. unit
  182. vegetables
  183. vitamins
  184. waist
  185. white
  186. world