full transcript

From the Ted Talk by NWHunter: How do contraceptives work?

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Here's what has to heppan for pregnancy to occur after sexual intercourse. Sperm must swim up the vagina, through the cervical opening, upwards through the uterus, and into one of the two fllpaiaon tubes. If an egg, reesaeld during that month's ovitoalun, is in the tube, one sperm has a cnahce to feilzrtie it. Contraceptives are designed to pvneret this poecsrs, and they work in three basic ways. They block the sperm, disable sperm before they reach the uterus, or suppress ovulation. Block is the simplest. Male and female condoms prevent sperm from cinomg into contact with the vgnaial space. That barrier is also why they, unlike other cviprncoatete methods, are able to prevent tismisnarosn of certain sexually transmitted diseases. Meanwhile, the diaphragm, cervical cap, and sponge work by being placed over the cervix, barricading the entrance to the uterus. These contraceptives are sometimes called barrier mhdteos and can be used with spermicides, an example of the second category, disable. A sdceiipmre is a chemical that immobilizes and destroys sperm. Today's spermicides come as foam, cream, jelly, suppositories, and even a thin piece of translucent film that dissolves in the vagina. These products can be inserted directly into the vagina before intercourse, or can be combined with block methods, like a diaphragm or condom, for added proection. The third category for preventing pregnancy works by suppressing the acoitn of an egg maturing in the ovary. If there isn't an egg available in the fallopian tube, there's nothing for sperm to fertilize. Hormonal contraceptives, including the pill, the patch, the Depo shot, and the vaginal ring all release siythnetc versions of various combinations of progesterone and estrogen. This hormone cocktail suppresses ovulation, keeping the iramumte egg safely sequestered in the ovary. Synthetic progesterone also has a blcok trcik up its sleeve. It makes cavrciel mucus too thick and sticky for sperm to swim through easily. There are other contraceptives that use multiple approaches at the same time. For example, many IUDs, or intrauterine devices, contain synthetic hormones which suppress ovulation. Some also contain copper, which disable seprm while also making egg implantation in the uterus difficult. Block, dasbile, or suppress: is one strategy better than the other? There are differences, but a lot of it has to do with how convenient and easy it is to use each contraceptive correctly. For example, male condoms would be about 98% effective if everyone used them pefrcelty. That 98% means if 100 couples correctly used condoms for a year, two women would get pregnant. But not everyone uses them correctly, so they're only 82% effective in practice. Other methods, like the ptcah and pill, are 99% effective when they're used perfectly. But in practice, that's 91%. Spermicide is only 85% eceffvtie, even with perfect usage, and just 71% effective with typical usage. Another iarpmtnot costierndiaon in the choice of contraceptives are side eftfecs, which almost exclusively affect women rather than men. Hormonal methods in particular can cause symptoms like hechaeads, nausea, and high blood pressure, but they vary from woman to woman. That's why these methods require a prescription from a doctor. The choice of contraceptive method is a personal one, and what wkors best for you now may chgane later. scttniiess also continue to research new methods, such as a male pill that would prevent sperm production. In the meantime, there are quite a few options to block sperm, disable them, or suppress eggs and keep them out of reach.

Open Cloze

Here's what has to ______ for pregnancy to occur after sexual intercourse. Sperm must swim up the vagina, through the cervical opening, upwards through the uterus, and into one of the two _________ tubes. If an egg, ________ during that month's _________, is in the tube, one sperm has a ______ to _________ it. Contraceptives are designed to _______ this _______, and they work in three basic ways. They block the sperm, disable sperm before they reach the uterus, or suppress ovulation. Block is the simplest. Male and female condoms prevent sperm from ______ into contact with the _______ space. That barrier is also why they, unlike other _____________ methods, are able to prevent ____________ of certain sexually transmitted diseases. Meanwhile, the diaphragm, cervical cap, and sponge work by being placed over the cervix, barricading the entrance to the uterus. These contraceptives are sometimes called barrier _______ and can be used with spermicides, an example of the second category, disable. A __________ is a chemical that immobilizes and destroys sperm. Today's spermicides come as foam, cream, jelly, suppositories, and even a thin piece of translucent film that dissolves in the vagina. These products can be inserted directly into the vagina before intercourse, or can be combined with block methods, like a diaphragm or condom, for added proection. The third category for preventing pregnancy works by suppressing the ______ of an egg maturing in the ovary. If there isn't an egg available in the fallopian tube, there's nothing for sperm to fertilize. Hormonal contraceptives, including the pill, the patch, the Depo shot, and the vaginal ring all release _________ versions of various combinations of progesterone and estrogen. This hormone cocktail suppresses ovulation, keeping the ________ egg safely sequestered in the ovary. Synthetic progesterone also has a _____ _____ up its sleeve. It makes ________ mucus too thick and sticky for sperm to swim through easily. There are other contraceptives that use multiple approaches at the same time. For example, many IUDs, or intrauterine devices, contain synthetic hormones which suppress ovulation. Some also contain copper, which disable _____ while also making egg implantation in the uterus difficult. Block, _______, or suppress: is one strategy better than the other? There are differences, but a lot of it has to do with how convenient and easy it is to use each contraceptive correctly. For example, male condoms would be about 98% effective if everyone used them _________. That 98% means if 100 couples correctly used condoms for a year, two women would get pregnant. But not everyone uses them correctly, so they're only 82% effective in practice. Other methods, like the _____ and pill, are 99% effective when they're used perfectly. But in practice, that's 91%. Spermicide is only 85% _________, even with perfect usage, and just 71% effective with typical usage. Another _________ _____________ in the choice of contraceptives are side _______, which almost exclusively affect women rather than men. Hormonal methods in particular can cause symptoms like _________, nausea, and high blood pressure, but they vary from woman to woman. That's why these methods require a prescription from a doctor. The choice of contraceptive method is a personal one, and what _____ best for you now may ______ later. __________ also continue to research new methods, such as a male pill that would prevent sperm production. In the meantime, there are quite a few options to block sperm, disable them, or suppress eggs and keep them out of reach.

Solution

  1. happen
  2. fertilize
  3. patch
  4. process
  5. sperm
  6. coming
  7. immature
  8. contraceptive
  9. effects
  10. ovulation
  11. trick
  12. spermicide
  13. works
  14. change
  15. action
  16. block
  17. consideration
  18. scientists
  19. important
  20. cervical
  21. released
  22. vaginal
  23. headaches
  24. synthetic
  25. disable
  26. methods
  27. effective
  28. perfectly
  29. prevent
  30. transmission
  31. chance
  32. fallopian

Original Text

Here's what has to happen for pregnancy to occur after sexual intercourse. Sperm must swim up the vagina, through the cervical opening, upwards through the uterus, and into one of the two fallopian tubes. If an egg, released during that month's ovulation, is in the tube, one sperm has a chance to fertilize it. Contraceptives are designed to prevent this process, and they work in three basic ways. They block the sperm, disable sperm before they reach the uterus, or suppress ovulation. Block is the simplest. Male and female condoms prevent sperm from coming into contact with the vaginal space. That barrier is also why they, unlike other contraceptive methods, are able to prevent transmission of certain sexually transmitted diseases. Meanwhile, the diaphragm, cervical cap, and sponge work by being placed over the cervix, barricading the entrance to the uterus. These contraceptives are sometimes called barrier methods and can be used with spermicides, an example of the second category, disable. A spermicide is a chemical that immobilizes and destroys sperm. Today's spermicides come as foam, cream, jelly, suppositories, and even a thin piece of translucent film that dissolves in the vagina. These products can be inserted directly into the vagina before intercourse, or can be combined with block methods, like a diaphragm or condom, for added proection. The third category for preventing pregnancy works by suppressing the action of an egg maturing in the ovary. If there isn't an egg available in the fallopian tube, there's nothing for sperm to fertilize. Hormonal contraceptives, including the pill, the patch, the Depo shot, and the vaginal ring all release synthetic versions of various combinations of progesterone and estrogen. This hormone cocktail suppresses ovulation, keeping the immature egg safely sequestered in the ovary. Synthetic progesterone also has a block trick up its sleeve. It makes cervical mucus too thick and sticky for sperm to swim through easily. There are other contraceptives that use multiple approaches at the same time. For example, many IUDs, or intrauterine devices, contain synthetic hormones which suppress ovulation. Some also contain copper, which disable sperm while also making egg implantation in the uterus difficult. Block, disable, or suppress: is one strategy better than the other? There are differences, but a lot of it has to do with how convenient and easy it is to use each contraceptive correctly. For example, male condoms would be about 98% effective if everyone used them perfectly. That 98% means if 100 couples correctly used condoms for a year, two women would get pregnant. But not everyone uses them correctly, so they're only 82% effective in practice. Other methods, like the patch and pill, are 99% effective when they're used perfectly. But in practice, that's 91%. Spermicide is only 85% effective, even with perfect usage, and just 71% effective with typical usage. Another important consideration in the choice of contraceptives are side effects, which almost exclusively affect women rather than men. Hormonal methods in particular can cause symptoms like headaches, nausea, and high blood pressure, but they vary from woman to woman. That's why these methods require a prescription from a doctor. The choice of contraceptive method is a personal one, and what works best for you now may change later. Scientists also continue to research new methods, such as a male pill that would prevent sperm production. In the meantime, there are quite a few options to block sperm, disable them, or suppress eggs and keep them out of reach.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
disable sperm 2
suppress ovulation 2
prevent sperm 2

Important Words

  1. action
  2. added
  3. affect
  4. approaches
  5. barricading
  6. barrier
  7. basic
  8. block
  9. blood
  10. called
  11. cap
  12. category
  13. cervical
  14. cervix
  15. chance
  16. change
  17. chemical
  18. choice
  19. cocktail
  20. combinations
  21. combined
  22. coming
  23. condom
  24. condoms
  25. consideration
  26. contact
  27. continue
  28. contraceptive
  29. contraceptives
  30. convenient
  31. copper
  32. correctly
  33. couples
  34. cream
  35. depo
  36. designed
  37. destroys
  38. devices
  39. diaphragm
  40. differences
  41. difficult
  42. disable
  43. diseases
  44. dissolves
  45. doctor
  46. easily
  47. easy
  48. effective
  49. effects
  50. egg
  51. eggs
  52. entrance
  53. estrogen
  54. exclusively
  55. fallopian
  56. female
  57. fertilize
  58. film
  59. foam
  60. happen
  61. headaches
  62. high
  63. hormonal
  64. hormone
  65. hormones
  66. immature
  67. immobilizes
  68. implantation
  69. important
  70. including
  71. inserted
  72. intercourse
  73. intrauterine
  74. iuds
  75. jelly
  76. keeping
  77. lot
  78. making
  79. male
  80. maturing
  81. means
  82. men
  83. method
  84. methods
  85. mucus
  86. multiple
  87. nausea
  88. occur
  89. opening
  90. options
  91. ovary
  92. ovulation
  93. patch
  94. perfect
  95. perfectly
  96. personal
  97. piece
  98. pill
  99. practice
  100. pregnancy
  101. pregnant
  102. prescription
  103. pressure
  104. prevent
  105. preventing
  106. process
  107. production
  108. products
  109. proection
  110. progesterone
  111. reach
  112. release
  113. released
  114. require
  115. research
  116. ring
  117. safely
  118. scientists
  119. sequestered
  120. sexual
  121. sexually
  122. shot
  123. side
  124. simplest
  125. sleeve
  126. space
  127. sperm
  128. spermicide
  129. spermicides
  130. sponge
  131. sticky
  132. strategy
  133. suppositories
  134. suppress
  135. suppresses
  136. suppressing
  137. swim
  138. symptoms
  139. synthetic
  140. thick
  141. thin
  142. time
  143. translucent
  144. transmission
  145. transmitted
  146. trick
  147. tube
  148. tubes
  149. typical
  150. usage
  151. uterus
  152. vagina
  153. vaginal
  154. vary
  155. versions
  156. ways
  157. woman
  158. women
  159. work
  160. works
  161. year