full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Graham Baird: How do crystals work?

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Depending on environmental conditions, most crystals have the potential to form multiple geometric shapes. For example, diamonds, which form deep in the Earth’s mantle, have a cubic csliralytne structure and can grow into either cebus or oeacnrthods. Which shape a particular diamond grows into depends on the conditions where it gwros, including pressure, temperature, and chemical environment. While we can’t directly obsrvee growth conditions in the mntlae, laboratory experiments have shown some evidence that diamonds tend to grow into cubes at lower temperatures and octahedrons at higher temperatures. Trace amounts of water, solicin, germanium, or magnesium might also influence a diamond’s shape. And diamonds never naturally grow into the shapes found in jewelry— those diamonds have been cut to soswhace skprale and clarity.

Open Cloze

Depending on environmental conditions, most crystals have the potential to form multiple geometric shapes. For example, diamonds, which form deep in the Earth’s mantle, have a cubic ___________ structure and can grow into either _____ or ___________. Which shape a particular diamond grows into depends on the conditions where it _____, including pressure, temperature, and chemical environment. While we can’t directly _______ growth conditions in the ______, laboratory experiments have shown some evidence that diamonds tend to grow into cubes at lower temperatures and octahedrons at higher temperatures. Trace amounts of water, _______, germanium, or magnesium might also influence a diamond’s shape. And diamonds never naturally grow into the shapes found in jewelry— those diamonds have been cut to ________ _______ and clarity.

Solution

  1. crystalline
  2. showcase
  3. silicon
  4. mantle
  5. observe
  6. octahedrons
  7. grows
  8. cubes
  9. sparkle

Original Text

Depending on environmental conditions, most crystals have the potential to form multiple geometric shapes. For example, diamonds, which form deep in the Earth’s mantle, have a cubic crystalline structure and can grow into either cubes or octahedrons. Which shape a particular diamond grows into depends on the conditions where it grows, including pressure, temperature, and chemical environment. While we can’t directly observe growth conditions in the mantle, laboratory experiments have shown some evidence that diamonds tend to grow into cubes at lower temperatures and octahedrons at higher temperatures. Trace amounts of water, silicon, germanium, or magnesium might also influence a diamond’s shape. And diamonds never naturally grow into the shapes found in jewelry— those diamonds have been cut to showcase sparkle and clarity.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
geometric shapes 3
crystalline structure 3
sulfur atoms 2
quartz crystal 2

Important Words

  1. amounts
  2. chemical
  3. clarity
  4. conditions
  5. crystalline
  6. crystals
  7. cubes
  8. cubic
  9. cut
  10. deep
  11. depending
  12. depends
  13. diamond
  14. diamonds
  15. environment
  16. environmental
  17. evidence
  18. experiments
  19. form
  20. geometric
  21. germanium
  22. grow
  23. grows
  24. growth
  25. higher
  26. including
  27. influence
  28. laboratory
  29. magnesium
  30. mantle
  31. multiple
  32. naturally
  33. observe
  34. octahedrons
  35. potential
  36. pressure
  37. shape
  38. shapes
  39. showcase
  40. shown
  41. silicon
  42. sparkle
  43. structure
  44. temperature
  45. temperatures
  46. tend
  47. trace
  48. water