full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Alexandra Horowitz: How do dogs "see" with their noses?

Unscramble the Blue Letters

"Hi, Bob." "Morning, Kelly. The tulips looks great." Have you ever wondered how your dog experiences the world? Here's what she sees. Not terribly initnersetg. But what she smells, that's a tatolly different story. And it begins at her wonderfully developed nose. As your dog ctechas the first hints of fserh air, her nose's moist, spongy outside helps catprue any scents the breeze ciraers. The ability to smell separately with each nostril, smelling in stereo, helps to determine the dctoierin of the smell's source so that within the first few moments of sniffing, the dog strtas to become aware of not just what kind of things are out there but also where they're located. As air eterns the nose, a small fold of tissue divides it into two separate folds, one for breathing and one just for smelling. This second airflow enters a region filled with highly specialized olfactory rectpeor clels, several hundred millions of them, compaired to our five million. And unlike our clumsy way of breathing in and out through the same psagsae, dogs exhale through slits at the side of their nose, caientrg siwrls of air that help draw in new odor molecules and allow odor concentration to build up over mulitple sniffs. But all that impressive nasal architecture wouldn't be much help without something to process the lodas of information the nose scoops up. And it turns out that the otlfocray system dedicated to pisesnrog smells takes up many tmies more relative brain area in dogs than in humans. All of this allows dogs to disiuntgish and remember a staggering variety of sifipcec scents at concentrations up to 100 million times less than what our noses can detect. If you can smell a spritz of pefurme in a small room, a dog would have no trouble smelling it in an enclosed stadium and distinguishing its ingredients, to boot. And everything in the sretet, every pansisg person or car, any contents of the neighbor's trash, each type of tree, and all the birds and insects in it has a distinct odor profile telling your dog what it is, where it is, and which direction it's moving in. Besides being much more powerful than ours, a dog's sense of smell can pick up things that can't even be seen at all. A whole separate olfactory system, cealld the vomeronasal organ, above the roof of the muoth, dtcetes the hoemorns all animals, Including humans, naturally release. It lets dogs indfeity potential mates, or distinguish between friendly and hostile animals. It alerts them to our various emotional states, and it can even tell them when someone is pregnant or sick. Because ociaoftln is more primal than other senses, bypassing the thalamus to connect directly to the brain structures involving emotion and insinctt, we might even say a dog's perception is more immediate and vsrceial than ours. But the most amiazng thing about your dog's nose is that it can traverse time. The past appears in trkcas left by passersby, and by the warmth of a recently parked car where the rsieude of where you've been and what you've done recently. Landmarks like fire hadnryts and trees are aromatic bulletin boards carrying messages of who's been by, what they've been eating, and how they're feeling. And the future is in the breeze, altnerig them to something or someone approaching long before you see them. Where we see and hear something at a single moment, a dog smells an erntie story from start to finish. In some of the best examples of canine-human collaboration, dogs help us by sharing and raictneg to those stieros. They can respond with kindness to people in dtissers, or with aggression to threats because stress and anger manifest as a cloud of hormones recognizable to the dog's nose. With the proper training, they can even alert us to invisible threats ranging from bombs to cancer. As it turns out, humanity's best friend is not one who experiences the same things we do, but one whose incredible nose reveals a whole other world beyond our eyes.

Open Cloze

"Hi, Bob." "Morning, Kelly. The tulips looks great." Have you ever wondered how your dog experiences the world? Here's what she sees. Not terribly ___________. But what she smells, that's a _______ different story. And it begins at her wonderfully developed nose. As your dog _______ the first hints of _____ air, her nose's moist, spongy outside helps _______ any scents the breeze _______. The ability to smell separately with each nostril, smelling in stereo, helps to determine the _________ of the smell's source so that within the first few moments of sniffing, the dog ______ to become aware of not just what kind of things are out there but also where they're located. As air ______ the nose, a small fold of tissue divides it into two separate folds, one for breathing and one just for smelling. This second airflow enters a region filled with highly specialized olfactory ________ _____, several hundred millions of them, compaired to our five million. And unlike our clumsy way of breathing in and out through the same _______, dogs exhale through slits at the side of their nose, ________ ______ of air that help draw in new odor molecules and allow odor concentration to build up over mulitple sniffs. But all that impressive nasal architecture wouldn't be much help without something to process the _____ of information the nose scoops up. And it turns out that the _________ system dedicated to _________ smells takes up many _____ more relative brain area in dogs than in humans. All of this allows dogs to ___________ and remember a staggering variety of ________ scents at concentrations up to 100 million times less than what our noses can detect. If you can smell a spritz of _______ in a small room, a dog would have no trouble smelling it in an enclosed stadium and distinguishing its ingredients, to boot. And everything in the ______, every _______ person or car, any contents of the neighbor's trash, each type of tree, and all the birds and insects in it has a distinct odor profile telling your dog what it is, where it is, and which direction it's moving in. Besides being much more powerful than ours, a dog's sense of smell can pick up things that can't even be seen at all. A whole separate olfactory system, ______ the vomeronasal organ, above the roof of the _____, _______ the ________ all animals, Including humans, naturally release. It lets dogs ________ potential mates, or distinguish between friendly and hostile animals. It alerts them to our various emotional states, and it can even tell them when someone is pregnant or sick. Because _________ is more primal than other senses, bypassing the thalamus to connect directly to the brain structures involving emotion and ________, we might even say a dog's perception is more immediate and ________ than ours. But the most _______ thing about your dog's nose is that it can traverse time. The past appears in ______ left by passersby, and by the warmth of a recently parked car where the _______ of where you've been and what you've done recently. Landmarks like fire ________ and trees are aromatic bulletin boards carrying messages of who's been by, what they've been eating, and how they're feeling. And the future is in the breeze, ________ them to something or someone approaching long before you see them. Where we see and hear something at a single moment, a dog smells an ______ story from start to finish. In some of the best examples of canine-human collaboration, dogs help us by sharing and ________ to those _______. They can respond with kindness to people in ________, or with aggression to threats because stress and anger manifest as a cloud of hormones recognizable to the dog's nose. With the proper training, they can even alert us to invisible threats ranging from bombs to cancer. As it turns out, humanity's best friend is not one who experiences the same things we do, but one whose incredible nose reveals a whole other world beyond our eyes.

Solution

  1. fresh
  2. street
  3. creating
  4. receptor
  5. interesting
  6. amazing
  7. loads
  8. distinguish
  9. visceral
  10. residue
  11. olfaction
  12. detects
  13. hormones
  14. cells
  15. instinct
  16. enters
  17. alerting
  18. times
  19. reacting
  20. mouth
  21. carries
  22. identify
  23. distress
  24. specific
  25. hydrants
  26. stories
  27. olfactory
  28. called
  29. swirls
  30. direction
  31. passing
  32. catches
  33. passage
  34. capture
  35. starts
  36. proessing
  37. tracks
  38. totally
  39. perfume
  40. entire

Original Text

"Hi, Bob." "Morning, Kelly. The tulips looks great." Have you ever wondered how your dog experiences the world? Here's what she sees. Not terribly interesting. But what she smells, that's a totally different story. And it begins at her wonderfully developed nose. As your dog catches the first hints of fresh air, her nose's moist, spongy outside helps capture any scents the breeze carries. The ability to smell separately with each nostril, smelling in stereo, helps to determine the direction of the smell's source so that within the first few moments of sniffing, the dog starts to become aware of not just what kind of things are out there but also where they're located. As air enters the nose, a small fold of tissue divides it into two separate folds, one for breathing and one just for smelling. This second airflow enters a region filled with highly specialized olfactory receptor cells, several hundred millions of them, compaired to our five million. And unlike our clumsy way of breathing in and out through the same passage, dogs exhale through slits at the side of their nose, creating swirls of air that help draw in new odor molecules and allow odor concentration to build up over mulitple sniffs. But all that impressive nasal architecture wouldn't be much help without something to process the loads of information the nose scoops up. And it turns out that the olfactory system dedicated to proessing smells takes up many times more relative brain area in dogs than in humans. All of this allows dogs to distinguish and remember a staggering variety of specific scents at concentrations up to 100 million times less than what our noses can detect. If you can smell a spritz of perfume in a small room, a dog would have no trouble smelling it in an enclosed stadium and distinguishing its ingredients, to boot. And everything in the street, every passing person or car, any contents of the neighbor's trash, each type of tree, and all the birds and insects in it has a distinct odor profile telling your dog what it is, where it is, and which direction it's moving in. Besides being much more powerful than ours, a dog's sense of smell can pick up things that can't even be seen at all. A whole separate olfactory system, called the vomeronasal organ, above the roof of the mouth, detects the hormones all animals, Including humans, naturally release. It lets dogs identify potential mates, or distinguish between friendly and hostile animals. It alerts them to our various emotional states, and it can even tell them when someone is pregnant or sick. Because olfaction is more primal than other senses, bypassing the thalamus to connect directly to the brain structures involving emotion and instinct, we might even say a dog's perception is more immediate and visceral than ours. But the most amazing thing about your dog's nose is that it can traverse time. The past appears in tracks left by passersby, and by the warmth of a recently parked car where the residue of where you've been and what you've done recently. Landmarks like fire hydrants and trees are aromatic bulletin boards carrying messages of who's been by, what they've been eating, and how they're feeling. And the future is in the breeze, alerting them to something or someone approaching long before you see them. Where we see and hear something at a single moment, a dog smells an entire story from start to finish. In some of the best examples of canine-human collaboration, dogs help us by sharing and reacting to those stories. They can respond with kindness to people in distress, or with aggression to threats because stress and anger manifest as a cloud of hormones recognizable to the dog's nose. With the proper training, they can even alert us to invisible threats ranging from bombs to cancer. As it turns out, humanity's best friend is not one who experiences the same things we do, but one whose incredible nose reveals a whole other world beyond our eyes.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

Important Words

  1. ability
  2. aggression
  3. air
  4. airflow
  5. alert
  6. alerting
  7. alerts
  8. amazing
  9. anger
  10. animals
  11. appears
  12. approaching
  13. architecture
  14. area
  15. aromatic
  16. aware
  17. begins
  18. birds
  19. boards
  20. bob
  21. bombs
  22. boot
  23. brain
  24. breathing
  25. breeze
  26. build
  27. bulletin
  28. bypassing
  29. called
  30. cancer
  31. capture
  32. car
  33. carries
  34. carrying
  35. catches
  36. cells
  37. cloud
  38. clumsy
  39. collaboration
  40. compaired
  41. concentration
  42. concentrations
  43. connect
  44. contents
  45. creating
  46. dedicated
  47. detect
  48. detects
  49. determine
  50. developed
  51. direction
  52. distinct
  53. distinguish
  54. distinguishing
  55. distress
  56. divides
  57. dog
  58. dogs
  59. draw
  60. eating
  61. emotion
  62. emotional
  63. enclosed
  64. enters
  65. entire
  66. examples
  67. exhale
  68. experiences
  69. eyes
  70. feeling
  71. filled
  72. finish
  73. fire
  74. fold
  75. folds
  76. fresh
  77. friend
  78. friendly
  79. future
  80. great
  81. hear
  82. helps
  83. highly
  84. hints
  85. hormones
  86. hostile
  87. humans
  88. hydrants
  89. identify
  90. impressive
  91. including
  92. incredible
  93. information
  94. ingredients
  95. insects
  96. instinct
  97. interesting
  98. invisible
  99. involving
  100. kelly
  101. kind
  102. kindness
  103. landmarks
  104. left
  105. lets
  106. loads
  107. located
  108. long
  109. manifest
  110. mates
  111. messages
  112. million
  113. millions
  114. moist
  115. molecules
  116. moment
  117. moments
  118. mouth
  119. moving
  120. mulitple
  121. nasal
  122. naturally
  123. nose
  124. noses
  125. nostril
  126. odor
  127. olfaction
  128. olfactory
  129. organ
  130. parked
  131. passage
  132. passersby
  133. passing
  134. people
  135. perception
  136. perfume
  137. person
  138. pick
  139. potential
  140. powerful
  141. pregnant
  142. primal
  143. process
  144. proessing
  145. profile
  146. proper
  147. ranging
  148. reacting
  149. receptor
  150. recognizable
  151. region
  152. relative
  153. release
  154. remember
  155. residue
  156. respond
  157. reveals
  158. roof
  159. room
  160. scents
  161. scoops
  162. sees
  163. sense
  164. senses
  165. separate
  166. separately
  167. sharing
  168. sick
  169. side
  170. single
  171. slits
  172. small
  173. smell
  174. smelling
  175. smells
  176. sniffing
  177. sniffs
  178. source
  179. specialized
  180. specific
  181. spongy
  182. spritz
  183. stadium
  184. staggering
  185. start
  186. starts
  187. states
  188. stereo
  189. stories
  190. story
  191. street
  192. stress
  193. structures
  194. swirls
  195. system
  196. takes
  197. telling
  198. terribly
  199. thalamus
  200. threats
  201. time
  202. times
  203. tissue
  204. totally
  205. tracks
  206. training
  207. trash
  208. traverse
  209. tree
  210. trees
  211. trouble
  212. tulips
  213. turns
  214. type
  215. variety
  216. visceral
  217. vomeronasal
  218. warmth
  219. wondered
  220. wonderfully
  221. world