full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Ben Longdon: How do viruses jump from animals to humans?

Unscramble the Blue Letters

It taeks more than time and geeintc similarity for a host jump to be successful. Some vuresis come equipped to easily infect a new host’s cells, but are then unable to evade an immune response. Others might have a difficult time tasniimtrtng to new hosts. For example, they might make the host’s blood contagious, but not their saliva. However, once a host jump rechaes the transmission stage, the virus becomes much more dangerous. Now gsentaitg within two hosts, the pathogen has twice the odds of mutating into a more successful virus. And each new host increases the potential for a full-blown epidemic.

Open Cloze

It _____ more than time and _______ similarity for a host jump to be successful. Some _______ come equipped to easily infect a new host’s cells, but are then unable to evade an immune response. Others might have a difficult time ____________ to new hosts. For example, they might make the host’s blood contagious, but not their saliva. However, once a host jump _______ the transmission stage, the virus becomes much more dangerous. Now _________ within two hosts, the pathogen has twice the odds of mutating into a more successful virus. And each new host increases the potential for a full-blown epidemic.

Solution

  1. reaches
  2. viruses
  3. takes
  4. transmitting
  5. gestating
  6. genetic

Original Text

It takes more than time and genetic similarity for a host jump to be successful. Some viruses come equipped to easily infect a new host’s cells, but are then unable to evade an immune response. Others might have a difficult time transmitting to new hosts. For example, they might make the host’s blood contagious, but not their saliva. However, once a host jump reaches the transmission stage, the virus becomes much more dangerous. Now gestating within two hosts, the pathogen has twice the odds of mutating into a more successful virus. And each new host increases the potential for a full-blown epidemic.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
virus adapted 3
immune response 2
host jump 2

Important Words

  1. blood
  2. cells
  3. contagious
  4. dangerous
  5. difficult
  6. easily
  7. epidemic
  8. equipped
  9. evade
  10. genetic
  11. gestating
  12. host
  13. hosts
  14. immune
  15. increases
  16. infect
  17. jump
  18. mutating
  19. odds
  20. pathogen
  21. potential
  22. reaches
  23. response
  24. saliva
  25. similarity
  26. stage
  27. successful
  28. takes
  29. time
  30. transmission
  31. transmitting
  32. unable
  33. virus
  34. viruses