full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Emma Bryce: How does the thyroid manage your metabolism?

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Nestled in the tissues of your neck is a small unassuming organ that wields enormous pwoer over your body. It's called the thyroid. Like the operations manager in a company, its role is to make sure that the cells in your body are working properly. It does that by using hormones to delevir messages to every single one of them. This high-ranking oragn is made up of lobules that each contains smaller cells called flicolels, which store the hnreomos the thyroid sends out into your blood. Two of the most important hormones it produces are thyroxine and triiodothyronine, or T3 and T4. As messengers, the hormone's job is to instruct every cell in the body when to consume oxygen and nutrients. That maintains the body's metabolism, the series of reactions our cells perform to provide us with energy. This hormonal notification from the thyroid gets the heart pumping more efficiently, and makes our clels break down nutrients faster. When you need more energy, the thyroid helps by sending out hormones to ianrsece metabolism. Ultimately, the thyroid allows our cells to use eerngy, grow and reproduce. The thyroid is controlled by the pituitary gland, a hormonal gland deep in the brain that oversees the thyroid's tasks, making sure it knows when to send out its messengers. The pituitary's role is to sense if hormone levels in the blood are too low or too high, in which case it sends out instructions in the form of the thyroid- slitanimtug hormone. Even in this tightly controlled ssyetm, however, management sometimes slips up. Certain dseiseas, growths in the thryoid or chemical imbalances in the body can confuse the organ and make it deaf to the pituitary's guiding commands. The first problem this causes is hhryoditiyrpesm, which happens when the organ sends out too many hormones. That mnaes the cells are overloaded with instructions to consume nutrients and oxygen. They become overactive as a rluest, meaning a person with hyperthyroidism eepxieercns a hhiegr metabolism signaled by a fseatr heartbeat, caonstnt hunger, and rapid weight loss. They also feel hot, sweaty, anxious, and find it difficult to selep. The opposite problem is hypothyroidism, which happens when the thyroid sdnes out too few hormones, mninaeg the body's cells don't have as many msgesrnees to guide them. In response, cells grow listless and metabolism slows. People with hdyiihorptsyom see symptoms in weight gain, sluggishness, sensitivity to cold, swollen jintos and feeling low. Luckily, there are meaicdl treatments that can help tigregr the thyroid's aiitetvics again, and bring the body back to a steady metabolic rate. For such a little organ, the thyroid wields an awful lot of power. But a healthy thyroid manages our cells so effectively that it can keep us running smoothly without us even noticing it's there.

Open Cloze

Nestled in the tissues of your neck is a small unassuming organ that wields enormous _____ over your body. It's called the thyroid. Like the operations manager in a company, its role is to make sure that the cells in your body are working properly. It does that by using hormones to _______ messages to every single one of them. This high-ranking _____ is made up of lobules that each contains smaller cells called _________, which store the ________ the thyroid sends out into your blood. Two of the most important hormones it produces are thyroxine and triiodothyronine, or T3 and T4. As messengers, the hormone's job is to instruct every cell in the body when to consume oxygen and nutrients. That maintains the body's metabolism, the series of reactions our cells perform to provide us with energy. This hormonal notification from the thyroid gets the heart pumping more efficiently, and makes our _____ break down nutrients faster. When you need more energy, the thyroid helps by sending out hormones to ________ metabolism. Ultimately, the thyroid allows our cells to use ______, grow and reproduce. The thyroid is controlled by the pituitary gland, a hormonal gland deep in the brain that oversees the thyroid's tasks, making sure it knows when to send out its messengers. The pituitary's role is to sense if hormone levels in the blood are too low or too high, in which case it sends out instructions in the form of the thyroid- ___________ hormone. Even in this tightly controlled ______, however, management sometimes slips up. Certain ________, growths in the thryoid or chemical imbalances in the body can confuse the organ and make it deaf to the pituitary's guiding commands. The first problem this causes is _______________, which happens when the organ sends out too many hormones. That _____ the cells are overloaded with instructions to consume nutrients and oxygen. They become overactive as a ______, meaning a person with hyperthyroidism ___________ a ______ metabolism signaled by a ______ heartbeat, ________ hunger, and rapid weight loss. They also feel hot, sweaty, anxious, and find it difficult to _____. The opposite problem is hypothyroidism, which happens when the thyroid _____ out too few hormones, _______ the body's cells don't have as many __________ to guide them. In response, cells grow listless and metabolism slows. People with ______________ see symptoms in weight gain, sluggishness, sensitivity to cold, swollen ______ and feeling low. Luckily, there are _______ treatments that can help _______ the thyroid's __________ again, and bring the body back to a steady metabolic rate. For such a little organ, the thyroid wields an awful lot of power. But a healthy thyroid manages our cells so effectively that it can keep us running smoothly without us even noticing it's there.

Solution

  1. faster
  2. increase
  3. activities
  4. means
  5. hyperthyroidism
  6. deliver
  7. experiences
  8. system
  9. higher
  10. power
  11. cells
  12. sleep
  13. joints
  14. organ
  15. meaning
  16. energy
  17. sends
  18. constant
  19. medical
  20. hypothyroidism
  21. hormones
  22. diseases
  23. messengers
  24. stimulating
  25. follicles
  26. trigger
  27. result

Original Text

Nestled in the tissues of your neck is a small unassuming organ that wields enormous power over your body. It's called the thyroid. Like the operations manager in a company, its role is to make sure that the cells in your body are working properly. It does that by using hormones to deliver messages to every single one of them. This high-ranking organ is made up of lobules that each contains smaller cells called follicles, which store the hormones the thyroid sends out into your blood. Two of the most important hormones it produces are thyroxine and triiodothyronine, or T3 and T4. As messengers, the hormone's job is to instruct every cell in the body when to consume oxygen and nutrients. That maintains the body's metabolism, the series of reactions our cells perform to provide us with energy. This hormonal notification from the thyroid gets the heart pumping more efficiently, and makes our cells break down nutrients faster. When you need more energy, the thyroid helps by sending out hormones to increase metabolism. Ultimately, the thyroid allows our cells to use energy, grow and reproduce. The thyroid is controlled by the pituitary gland, a hormonal gland deep in the brain that oversees the thyroid's tasks, making sure it knows when to send out its messengers. The pituitary's role is to sense if hormone levels in the blood are too low or too high, in which case it sends out instructions in the form of the thyroid- stimulating hormone. Even in this tightly controlled system, however, management sometimes slips up. Certain diseases, growths in the thryoid or chemical imbalances in the body can confuse the organ and make it deaf to the pituitary's guiding commands. The first problem this causes is hyperthyroidism, which happens when the organ sends out too many hormones. That means the cells are overloaded with instructions to consume nutrients and oxygen. They become overactive as a result, meaning a person with hyperthyroidism experiences a higher metabolism signaled by a faster heartbeat, constant hunger, and rapid weight loss. They also feel hot, sweaty, anxious, and find it difficult to sleep. The opposite problem is hypothyroidism, which happens when the thyroid sends out too few hormones, meaning the body's cells don't have as many messengers to guide them. In response, cells grow listless and metabolism slows. People with hypothyroidism see symptoms in weight gain, sluggishness, sensitivity to cold, swollen joints and feeling low. Luckily, there are medical treatments that can help trigger the thyroid's activities again, and bring the body back to a steady metabolic rate. For such a little organ, the thyroid wields an awful lot of power. But a healthy thyroid manages our cells so effectively that it can keep us running smoothly without us even noticing it's there.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
thyroid sends 2

Important Words

  1. activities
  2. anxious
  3. awful
  4. blood
  5. body
  6. brain
  7. break
  8. bring
  9. called
  10. case
  11. cell
  12. cells
  13. chemical
  14. cold
  15. commands
  16. company
  17. confuse
  18. constant
  19. consume
  20. controlled
  21. deaf
  22. deep
  23. deliver
  24. difficult
  25. diseases
  26. effectively
  27. efficiently
  28. energy
  29. enormous
  30. experiences
  31. faster
  32. feel
  33. feeling
  34. find
  35. follicles
  36. form
  37. gain
  38. gland
  39. grow
  40. growths
  41. guide
  42. guiding
  43. healthy
  44. heart
  45. heartbeat
  46. helps
  47. high
  48. higher
  49. hormonal
  50. hormone
  51. hormones
  52. hot
  53. hunger
  54. hyperthyroidism
  55. hypothyroidism
  56. imbalances
  57. important
  58. increase
  59. instruct
  60. instructions
  61. job
  62. joints
  63. levels
  64. listless
  65. lobules
  66. loss
  67. lot
  68. luckily
  69. maintains
  70. making
  71. management
  72. manager
  73. manages
  74. meaning
  75. means
  76. medical
  77. messages
  78. messengers
  79. metabolic
  80. metabolism
  81. neck
  82. nestled
  83. noticing
  84. notification
  85. nutrients
  86. operations
  87. organ
  88. overactive
  89. overloaded
  90. oversees
  91. oxygen
  92. people
  93. perform
  94. person
  95. pituitary
  96. power
  97. problem
  98. produces
  99. properly
  100. provide
  101. pumping
  102. rapid
  103. rate
  104. reactions
  105. reproduce
  106. response
  107. result
  108. role
  109. running
  110. send
  111. sending
  112. sends
  113. sense
  114. sensitivity
  115. series
  116. signaled
  117. single
  118. sleep
  119. slips
  120. slows
  121. sluggishness
  122. small
  123. smaller
  124. smoothly
  125. steady
  126. stimulating
  127. store
  128. sweaty
  129. swollen
  130. symptoms
  131. system
  132. tasks
  133. thryoid
  134. thyroid
  135. thyroxine
  136. tightly
  137. tissues
  138. treatments
  139. trigger
  140. triiodothyronine
  141. ultimately
  142. unassuming
  143. weight
  144. wields
  145. working