full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Céline Valéry: How does your body process medicine?

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Have you ever wondered what happens to a painkiller, like ibuprofen, after you swallow it? Medicine that slieds down your throat can help treat a headache, a sore back, or a throbbing sprained ankle. But how does it get where it needs to go in the first place? The answer is that it hehicts a ride in your circulatory blood stream, cycling through your body in a race to do its job before it's snared by organs and molecules designed to neutralize and expel foreign susctneabs. This process starts in your digestive system. Say you swallow an ibefproun tablet for a sore ankle. Within minutes, the tablet starts disintegrating in the acidic fluids of your soamcth. The dissolved ibuprofen travels into the small intestine and then across the intestinal wall into a network of blood vessels. These blood vsseles feed into a vein, which carries the blood, and anything in it, to the liver. The next step is to make it through the liver. As the blood and the drug molecules in it tavrel through liver blood vessels, enzymes attempt to react with the ibuprofen molecules to neutralize them. The damaged ibuprofen molecules, called metabolites, may no longer be effective as painkillers. At this stage, most of the ibuprofen makes it through the liver unscathed. It continues its journey out of the liver, through veins, into the body's circulatory system. Half an hour after you slaowlw the pill, some of the dose has already made it into the circulatory blood stream. This blood loop tvelras through every limb and ogarn, including the heart, biran, kidneys, and back through the liver. When ibuprofen molecules eeotncunr a location where the body's pain response is in full swing, they bind to specific target molecules that are a part of that reaction. Painkillers, like ibuprofen, block the ptucrooidn of compounds that help the body transmit pain signals. As more drug molecules accumulate, the pain-cancelling affect increases, reaching a maximum within about one or two huros. Then the body starts efficiently eliminating ibuprofen, with the bolod dose decreasing by half every two hours on average. When the ibuprofen molecules detach from their targets, the systemic blood stearm crreais them away again. Back in the lievr, another small fraction of the total amount of the drug gets transformed into metbietolas, which are eventually filtered out by the kneydis in the urnie. The loop from liver to body to kidneys continues at a rate of about one blood cycle per minute, with a little more of the drug neutralized and filtered out in each cycle. These bsiac steps are the same for any drug that you take orally, but the speed of the process and the amount of medicine that makes it into your blood stream veairs based on drug, person, and how it gets into the body. The dosing instructions on medicine labels can help, but they're averages beasd on a sample population that doesn't represent every consumer. And getting the dose right is important. If it's too low, the medicine won't do its job. If it's too high, the drug and its metabolites can be toxic. That's true of any drug. One of the hrsadet gprous of patients to get the right dosage for are crelhdin. That's because how they process medicine changes qlckuiy, as do their bodies. For instance, the lveel of liver enzymes that neutralize medication highly fluctuates during infancy and choliohdd. And that's just one of many complicating factors. Genetics, age, diet, disease, and even pregnancy influence the body's efficiency of processing medicine. Some day, rtiuone DNA tests may be able to dial in the precise dose of medicine personalized to your liver eceificnfy and other fraocts, but in the meantime, your best bet is reading the label or coslnitnug your doctor or pharmacist, and taking the recommended amounts with the recommended timing.

Open Cloze

Have you ever wondered what happens to a painkiller, like ibuprofen, after you swallow it? Medicine that ______ down your throat can help treat a headache, a sore back, or a throbbing sprained ankle. But how does it get where it needs to go in the first place? The answer is that it _______ a ride in your circulatory blood stream, cycling through your body in a race to do its job before it's snared by organs and molecules designed to neutralize and expel foreign __________. This process starts in your digestive system. Say you swallow an _________ tablet for a sore ankle. Within minutes, the tablet starts disintegrating in the acidic fluids of your _______. The dissolved ibuprofen travels into the small intestine and then across the intestinal wall into a network of blood vessels. These blood _______ feed into a vein, which carries the blood, and anything in it, to the liver. The next step is to make it through the liver. As the blood and the drug molecules in it ______ through liver blood vessels, enzymes attempt to react with the ibuprofen molecules to neutralize them. The damaged ibuprofen molecules, called metabolites, may no longer be effective as painkillers. At this stage, most of the ibuprofen makes it through the liver unscathed. It continues its journey out of the liver, through veins, into the body's circulatory system. Half an hour after you _______ the pill, some of the dose has already made it into the circulatory blood stream. This blood loop _______ through every limb and _____, including the heart, _____, kidneys, and back through the liver. When ibuprofen molecules _________ a location where the body's pain response is in full swing, they bind to specific target molecules that are a part of that reaction. Painkillers, like ibuprofen, block the __________ of compounds that help the body transmit pain signals. As more drug molecules accumulate, the pain-cancelling affect increases, reaching a maximum within about one or two _____. Then the body starts efficiently eliminating ibuprofen, with the _____ dose decreasing by half every two hours on average. When the ibuprofen molecules detach from their targets, the systemic blood ______ _______ them away again. Back in the _____, another small fraction of the total amount of the drug gets transformed into ___________, which are eventually filtered out by the _______ in the _____. The loop from liver to body to kidneys continues at a rate of about one blood cycle per minute, with a little more of the drug neutralized and filtered out in each cycle. These _____ steps are the same for any drug that you take orally, but the speed of the process and the amount of medicine that makes it into your blood stream ______ based on drug, person, and how it gets into the body. The dosing instructions on medicine labels can help, but they're averages _____ on a sample population that doesn't represent every consumer. And getting the dose right is important. If it's too low, the medicine won't do its job. If it's too high, the drug and its metabolites can be toxic. That's true of any drug. One of the _______ ______ of patients to get the right dosage for are ________. That's because how they process medicine changes _______, as do their bodies. For instance, the _____ of liver enzymes that neutralize medication highly fluctuates during infancy and _________. And that's just one of many complicating factors. Genetics, age, diet, disease, and even pregnancy influence the body's efficiency of processing medicine. Some day, _______ DNA tests may be able to dial in the precise dose of medicine personalized to your liver __________ and other _______, but in the meantime, your best bet is reading the label or __________ your doctor or pharmacist, and taking the recommended amounts with the recommended timing.

Solution

  1. stream
  2. brain
  3. encounter
  4. stomach
  5. carries
  6. hours
  7. metabolites
  8. blood
  9. level
  10. travels
  11. swallow
  12. kidneys
  13. quickly
  14. travel
  15. basic
  16. varies
  17. production
  18. childhood
  19. factors
  20. urine
  21. substances
  22. consulting
  23. hitches
  24. based
  25. groups
  26. routine
  27. organ
  28. children
  29. liver
  30. slides
  31. efficiency
  32. hardest
  33. ibuprofen
  34. vessels

Original Text

Have you ever wondered what happens to a painkiller, like ibuprofen, after you swallow it? Medicine that slides down your throat can help treat a headache, a sore back, or a throbbing sprained ankle. But how does it get where it needs to go in the first place? The answer is that it hitches a ride in your circulatory blood stream, cycling through your body in a race to do its job before it's snared by organs and molecules designed to neutralize and expel foreign substances. This process starts in your digestive system. Say you swallow an ibuprofen tablet for a sore ankle. Within minutes, the tablet starts disintegrating in the acidic fluids of your stomach. The dissolved ibuprofen travels into the small intestine and then across the intestinal wall into a network of blood vessels. These blood vessels feed into a vein, which carries the blood, and anything in it, to the liver. The next step is to make it through the liver. As the blood and the drug molecules in it travel through liver blood vessels, enzymes attempt to react with the ibuprofen molecules to neutralize them. The damaged ibuprofen molecules, called metabolites, may no longer be effective as painkillers. At this stage, most of the ibuprofen makes it through the liver unscathed. It continues its journey out of the liver, through veins, into the body's circulatory system. Half an hour after you swallow the pill, some of the dose has already made it into the circulatory blood stream. This blood loop travels through every limb and organ, including the heart, brain, kidneys, and back through the liver. When ibuprofen molecules encounter a location where the body's pain response is in full swing, they bind to specific target molecules that are a part of that reaction. Painkillers, like ibuprofen, block the production of compounds that help the body transmit pain signals. As more drug molecules accumulate, the pain-cancelling affect increases, reaching a maximum within about one or two hours. Then the body starts efficiently eliminating ibuprofen, with the blood dose decreasing by half every two hours on average. When the ibuprofen molecules detach from their targets, the systemic blood stream carries them away again. Back in the liver, another small fraction of the total amount of the drug gets transformed into metabolites, which are eventually filtered out by the kidneys in the urine. The loop from liver to body to kidneys continues at a rate of about one blood cycle per minute, with a little more of the drug neutralized and filtered out in each cycle. These basic steps are the same for any drug that you take orally, but the speed of the process and the amount of medicine that makes it into your blood stream varies based on drug, person, and how it gets into the body. The dosing instructions on medicine labels can help, but they're averages based on a sample population that doesn't represent every consumer. And getting the dose right is important. If it's too low, the medicine won't do its job. If it's too high, the drug and its metabolites can be toxic. That's true of any drug. One of the hardest groups of patients to get the right dosage for are children. That's because how they process medicine changes quickly, as do their bodies. For instance, the level of liver enzymes that neutralize medication highly fluctuates during infancy and childhood. And that's just one of many complicating factors. Genetics, age, diet, disease, and even pregnancy influence the body's efficiency of processing medicine. Some day, routine DNA tests may be able to dial in the precise dose of medicine personalized to your liver efficiency and other factors, but in the meantime, your best bet is reading the label or consulting your doctor or pharmacist, and taking the recommended amounts with the recommended timing.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
ibuprofen molecules 3
blood stream 3
circulatory blood 2
blood vessels 2
drug molecules 2

Important Words

  1. accumulate
  2. acidic
  3. affect
  4. age
  5. amount
  6. amounts
  7. ankle
  8. answer
  9. attempt
  10. average
  11. averages
  12. based
  13. basic
  14. bet
  15. bind
  16. block
  17. blood
  18. bodies
  19. body
  20. brain
  21. called
  22. carries
  23. childhood
  24. children
  25. circulatory
  26. complicating
  27. compounds
  28. consulting
  29. consumer
  30. continues
  31. cycle
  32. cycling
  33. damaged
  34. day
  35. decreasing
  36. designed
  37. detach
  38. dial
  39. diet
  40. digestive
  41. disease
  42. disintegrating
  43. dissolved
  44. dna
  45. doctor
  46. dosage
  47. dose
  48. dosing
  49. drug
  50. effective
  51. efficiency
  52. efficiently
  53. eliminating
  54. encounter
  55. enzymes
  56. eventually
  57. expel
  58. factors
  59. feed
  60. filtered
  61. fluctuates
  62. fluids
  63. foreign
  64. fraction
  65. full
  66. genetics
  67. groups
  68. hardest
  69. headache
  70. heart
  71. high
  72. highly
  73. hitches
  74. hour
  75. hours
  76. ibuprofen
  77. important
  78. including
  79. increases
  80. infancy
  81. influence
  82. instance
  83. instructions
  84. intestinal
  85. intestine
  86. job
  87. journey
  88. kidneys
  89. label
  90. labels
  91. level
  92. limb
  93. liver
  94. location
  95. longer
  96. loop
  97. maximum
  98. medication
  99. medicine
  100. metabolites
  101. minute
  102. minutes
  103. molecules
  104. network
  105. neutralize
  106. neutralized
  107. orally
  108. organ
  109. organs
  110. pain
  111. painkiller
  112. painkillers
  113. part
  114. patients
  115. person
  116. personalized
  117. pharmacist
  118. pill
  119. place
  120. population
  121. precise
  122. pregnancy
  123. process
  124. processing
  125. production
  126. quickly
  127. race
  128. rate
  129. reaching
  130. react
  131. reaction
  132. reading
  133. recommended
  134. represent
  135. response
  136. ride
  137. routine
  138. sample
  139. signals
  140. slides
  141. small
  142. snared
  143. sore
  144. specific
  145. speed
  146. sprained
  147. stage
  148. starts
  149. step
  150. steps
  151. stomach
  152. stream
  153. substances
  154. swallow
  155. swing
  156. system
  157. systemic
  158. tablet
  159. target
  160. targets
  161. tests
  162. throat
  163. throbbing
  164. timing
  165. total
  166. toxic
  167. transformed
  168. transmit
  169. travel
  170. travels
  171. treat
  172. true
  173. unscathed
  174. urine
  175. varies
  176. vein
  177. veins
  178. vessels
  179. wall
  180. wondered