full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Mennat El Ghalid: How fungi recognize (and infect) plants

Unscramble the Blue Letters

One feature of fungi is that they cannot move and only grow by extension to form a shticpoiseatd network, the mycelium. In 1884, Anton de Bary, the father of plant pathology, was the first to presume that fungi are guided by sgalins sent out from the host plant, meaning a plant upon which it can logde and subsist, so signals act as a lighthouse for fungi to locate, grow toward, reach and flilnay invade and colonize a plant. He knew that the identification of such signals would ulnock a great knowledge that then serves to elaborate strategy to block the iitntrcaoen between the fungus and the plant. However, the lack of an appropriate method at that moment petrveend him from itnindeiyfg this mcasiehnm at the molecular level.

Open Cloze

One feature of fungi is that they cannot move and only grow by extension to form a _____________ network, the mycelium. In 1884, Anton de Bary, the father of plant pathology, was the first to presume that fungi are guided by _______ sent out from the host plant, meaning a plant upon which it can _____ and subsist, so signals act as a lighthouse for fungi to locate, grow toward, reach and _______ invade and colonize a plant. He knew that the identification of such signals would ______ a great knowledge that then serves to elaborate strategy to block the ___________ between the fungus and the plant. However, the lack of an appropriate method at that moment _________ him from ___________ this _________ at the molecular level.

Solution

  1. interaction
  2. identifying
  3. finally
  4. signals
  5. mechanism
  6. lodge
  7. sophisticated
  8. unlock
  9. prevented

Original Text

One feature of fungi is that they cannot move and only grow by extension to form a sophisticated network, the mycelium. In 1884, Anton de Bary, the father of plant pathology, was the first to presume that fungi are guided by signals sent out from the host plant, meaning a plant upon which it can lodge and subsist, so signals act as a lighthouse for fungi to locate, grow toward, reach and finally invade and colonize a plant. He knew that the identification of such signals would unlock a great knowledge that then serves to elaborate strategy to block the interaction between the fungus and the plant. However, the lack of an appropriate method at that moment prevented him from identifying this mechanism at the molecular level.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
fungal infection 2
antifungal treatments 2

Important Words

  1. act
  2. anton
  3. bary
  4. block
  5. colonize
  6. de
  7. elaborate
  8. extension
  9. father
  10. feature
  11. finally
  12. form
  13. fungi
  14. fungus
  15. great
  16. grow
  17. guided
  18. host
  19. identification
  20. identifying
  21. interaction
  22. invade
  23. knew
  24. knowledge
  25. lack
  26. level
  27. lighthouse
  28. locate
  29. lodge
  30. meaning
  31. mechanism
  32. method
  33. molecular
  34. moment
  35. move
  36. mycelium
  37. network
  38. pathology
  39. plant
  40. presume
  41. prevented
  42. reach
  43. serves
  44. signals
  45. sophisticated
  46. strategy
  47. subsist
  48. unlock