full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Mennat El Ghalid: How fungi recognize (and infect) plants

Unscramble the Blue Letters

At the bnnneiigg of the 20th century, the eastern American chestnut population, counting nearly four billion trees, was completely decimated by a fungal iotcfienn. fngui are the most destructive pathogens of plants, including crops of major economic iocntprame. Can you imagine that today, crop losses associated with fgaunl infection are eetatsmid at billions of dollars per year, worldwide? That represents enough food calories to feed half a boillin people. And this leads to severe rsncieouspers, including episodes of fminae in developing countries, large reduction of income for farmers and distributors, high prices for consumers and risk of exposure to mycotoxin, poison produced by fungi.

Open Cloze

At the _________ of the 20th century, the eastern American chestnut population, counting nearly four billion trees, was completely decimated by a fungal _________. _____ are the most destructive pathogens of plants, including crops of major economic __________. Can you imagine that today, crop losses associated with ______ infection are _________ at billions of dollars per year, worldwide? That represents enough food calories to feed half a _______ people. And this leads to severe _____________, including episodes of ______ in developing countries, large reduction of income for farmers and distributors, high prices for consumers and risk of exposure to mycotoxin, poison produced by fungi.

Solution

  1. fungal
  2. repercussions
  3. billion
  4. fungi
  5. famine
  6. beginning
  7. infection
  8. estimated
  9. importance

Original Text

At the beginning of the 20th century, the eastern American chestnut population, counting nearly four billion trees, was completely decimated by a fungal infection. Fungi are the most destructive pathogens of plants, including crops of major economic importance. Can you imagine that today, crop losses associated with fungal infection are estimated at billions of dollars per year, worldwide? That represents enough food calories to feed half a billion people. And this leads to severe repercussions, including episodes of famine in developing countries, large reduction of income for farmers and distributors, high prices for consumers and risk of exposure to mycotoxin, poison produced by fungi.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
fungal infection 2
antifungal treatments 2

Important Words

  1. american
  2. beginning
  3. billion
  4. billions
  5. calories
  6. century
  7. chestnut
  8. completely
  9. consumers
  10. counting
  11. countries
  12. crop
  13. crops
  14. decimated
  15. destructive
  16. developing
  17. distributors
  18. dollars
  19. eastern
  20. economic
  21. episodes
  22. estimated
  23. exposure
  24. famine
  25. farmers
  26. feed
  27. food
  28. fungal
  29. fungi
  30. high
  31. imagine
  32. importance
  33. including
  34. income
  35. infection
  36. large
  37. leads
  38. losses
  39. major
  40. mycotoxin
  41. pathogens
  42. people
  43. plants
  44. poison
  45. population
  46. prices
  47. produced
  48. reduction
  49. repercussions
  50. represents
  51. risk
  52. severe
  53. today
  54. trees
  55. worldwide
  56. year