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From the Ted Talk by Lisa Nip: How humans could evolve to survive in space

Unscramble the Blue Letters

So let us appeal to nature for inspiration. Among the plethora of life here on Earth, there's a subset of organisms known as extremophiles, or lorevs of extreme living conditions, if you'll remember from high school biology. And among these organisms is a bacterium by the name of Deinococcus radiodurans. It is known to be able to withstand cold, ddioayhtren, vacuum, acid, and, most nbtaoly, radiation. While its radiation tolerance maemhisncs are known, we have yet to adapt the relevant genes to mmmalas. To do so is not particularly easy. There are many facets that go into its radiation tolerance, and it's not as simple as transferring one gene. But given a little bit of human ingenuity and a little bit of time, I think to do so is not very hard either. Even if we borrow just a fraction of its ability to trltoaee radiation, it would be ilifeintny better than what we already have, which is just the melanin in our skin. Using the tools of synthetic biology, we can harness Deinococcus radiodurans' ability to thrive under otherwise very lethal doses of radiation. As dcffuliit as it is to see, homo sapiens, that is humans, eelvovs every day, and still continues to evolve. Thousands of yreas of human evolution has not only given us humans like ttbaeins, who can thrive in low-oxygen conditions, but also Argentinians, who can iesgnt and metabolize arsenic, the chemical element that can kill the average human being. Every day, the hmaun body evolves by accidental mutations that equally accidentally allow certain hnamus to persevere in dismal siattiunos.

Open Cloze

So let us appeal to nature for inspiration. Among the plethora of life here on Earth, there's a subset of organisms known as extremophiles, or ______ of extreme living conditions, if you'll remember from high school biology. And among these organisms is a bacterium by the name of Deinococcus radiodurans. It is known to be able to withstand cold, ___________, vacuum, acid, and, most _______, radiation. While its radiation tolerance __________ are known, we have yet to adapt the relevant genes to _______. To do so is not particularly easy. There are many facets that go into its radiation tolerance, and it's not as simple as transferring one gene. But given a little bit of human ingenuity and a little bit of time, I think to do so is not very hard either. Even if we borrow just a fraction of its ability to ________ radiation, it would be __________ better than what we already have, which is just the melanin in our skin. Using the tools of synthetic biology, we can harness Deinococcus radiodurans' ability to thrive under otherwise very lethal doses of radiation. As _________ as it is to see, homo sapiens, that is humans, _______ every day, and still continues to evolve. Thousands of _____ of human evolution has not only given us humans like ________, who can thrive in low-oxygen conditions, but also Argentinians, who can ______ and metabolize arsenic, the chemical element that can kill the average human being. Every day, the _____ body evolves by accidental mutations that equally accidentally allow certain ______ to persevere in dismal __________.

Solution

  1. notably
  2. humans
  3. tibetans
  4. difficult
  5. years
  6. dehydration
  7. evolves
  8. mammals
  9. human
  10. tolerate
  11. situations
  12. mechanisms
  13. lovers
  14. ingest
  15. infinitely

Original Text

So let us appeal to nature for inspiration. Among the plethora of life here on Earth, there's a subset of organisms known as extremophiles, or lovers of extreme living conditions, if you'll remember from high school biology. And among these organisms is a bacterium by the name of Deinococcus radiodurans. It is known to be able to withstand cold, dehydration, vacuum, acid, and, most notably, radiation. While its radiation tolerance mechanisms are known, we have yet to adapt the relevant genes to mammals. To do so is not particularly easy. There are many facets that go into its radiation tolerance, and it's not as simple as transferring one gene. But given a little bit of human ingenuity and a little bit of time, I think to do so is not very hard either. Even if we borrow just a fraction of its ability to tolerate radiation, it would be infinitely better than what we already have, which is just the melanin in our skin. Using the tools of synthetic biology, we can harness Deinococcus radiodurans' ability to thrive under otherwise very lethal doses of radiation. As difficult as it is to see, homo sapiens, that is humans, evolves every day, and still continues to evolve. Thousands of years of human evolution has not only given us humans like Tibetans, who can thrive in low-oxygen conditions, but also Argentinians, who can ingest and metabolize arsenic, the chemical element that can kill the average human being. Every day, the human body evolves by accidental mutations that equally accidentally allow certain humans to persevere in dismal situations.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
synthetic biology 5
human body 3
evolved uniquely 2
local national 2
national forest 2
martian soil 2
genetic makeup 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
local national forest 2

Important Words

  1. ability
  2. accidental
  3. accidentally
  4. acid
  5. adapt
  6. appeal
  7. argentinians
  8. arsenic
  9. average
  10. bacterium
  11. biology
  12. bit
  13. body
  14. borrow
  15. chemical
  16. cold
  17. conditions
  18. continues
  19. day
  20. dehydration
  21. deinococcus
  22. difficult
  23. dismal
  24. doses
  25. earth
  26. easy
  27. element
  28. equally
  29. evolution
  30. evolve
  31. evolves
  32. extreme
  33. extremophiles
  34. facets
  35. fraction
  36. gene
  37. genes
  38. hard
  39. harness
  40. high
  41. homo
  42. human
  43. humans
  44. infinitely
  45. ingenuity
  46. ingest
  47. inspiration
  48. kill
  49. lethal
  50. life
  51. living
  52. lovers
  53. mammals
  54. mechanisms
  55. melanin
  56. metabolize
  57. mutations
  58. nature
  59. notably
  60. organisms
  61. persevere
  62. plethora
  63. radiation
  64. radiodurans
  65. relevant
  66. remember
  67. sapiens
  68. school
  69. simple
  70. situations
  71. skin
  72. subset
  73. synthetic
  74. thousands
  75. thrive
  76. tibetans
  77. time
  78. tolerance
  79. tolerate
  80. tools
  81. transferring
  82. vacuum
  83. withstand
  84. years