full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Michael Stevens: How much does a video weigh?

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Bean bags are awesome. But I see a few people out there who are standing, we've got some over here, and standing takes more work than lounging. Using the Live Strong Organization's online database of weight loss resources, you can calculate that by the time I'm done with this speech, those of you who are standing will have burned 7.5 more calories than those of you who are bean-bagging it. (laehgutr) Okay, here's a question, speaking of weight loss, specifically weight, this speech is live. I'm actually here in front of you guys, we're all here together. But this speech is being recorded and it will become a video that people can access all over the world on computers, mobile devices, televisions. I weight about 190 pounds. How much will the video weigh? Asking questions like that is what I do every week on my channel Vsauce. For the last two years, I have been asking really fun questions, mind-boggling questions, and approaching them as sincerely as I can, celebrating scientific concepts and scientists. And I research and write and produce and host and edit and upload and run the saicol media all by myself, but it's not lneoly, because Vsauce has more than 2 million subscribers, and every month, my voedis are seen by more than 20 mioliln people. Yeah. (Applause) It's very exciting. I've found that asking a strange question is a great way to get people in, not just people, but fans. And fans are different than just veiwers or an audience, because fans want to come back. They subscribe to you on YouTube and they want to wtach everything you've made and everything you plan to make in the future because we are curious people and sparking curiosity is great bait. It's a geart way to ctcah a hamun. And once you've caught them, you have this captive audience that you can, with the goal in mind of answering the question, accidentally teach a lot of things to. So, let's take a look at some of my videos. Here are eight of them. But down here in the lower-right corner, "What Color is a Mirror?" When people see that, it's very difficult not to click, because you think, "Come on, are you serious? How could you possibly answer that question?" Well, so far, 7.6 million people have watched this five-minute video about what color a mirror is. And in that episode, I aneswr the question and I get a chance to explain what would normally be kind of dry topics: optics, diffuse versus seacplur reflection, how light works, how light works on the rtinea, and even the etymology of color terms like white and bcalk. Okay, spoiler alert: mirrors are not clear, they are not silvery, like they're often ietuarllstd. Mirrors, technically senapikg, are just a tiny, tiny, little bit ... green. You can demonstrate this by putntig two mirrors next to each other, facing so they reflect back and forth forever. Look down that infinite reflection, and it will get dimmer, because some light is lost or absorbed every time, but it will also become greener, because green light, that is light of a wavelength that we perceive as geren, is best reflected by most mriorrs. Okay, so, how much does a viedo weigh? Well, when you stream a video onto your coetumpr, that information is temporarily stored using electrons. And the number of electrons on your device won't actually increase or decearse. But it takes energy to store them in one place, and, thanks to our fnired aerlbt eiitsnen, we know that eerngy and mass are related. Okay, so here's the thing: let's say you're watching a YouTube video at a really nice reotuisoln, 720p. Assuming a typical bit rate, we can frigue that a mtinue of YouTube video is going to need to involve about 10 million electrons on your device. Plugging all those electrons and the energy it takes to hold them in the crecort plcae for you to see the video, into that formula, we can figure out that one minute of YouTube video increases the mass of your computer by about 10 to the negative 19th grams. Written out, it looks like this. (Whistle) That's like nothing. You could call that nothing, and you wouldn't really get in trouble, because the best scales we've ever invented that we could try to use to actually to detect that cnhgae are only accurate to 10 to the negative 9th gmars. So, we can't measure it, but we can, like we just did, calculate it. And that's really cool because when I was a kid, my school had two shelves of science bokos. That was really cool, but I read all of them within, like, two gerdas, and it was hard to get more books because books are hveay, you need space for them and moving books around is tougher than what we can do today. With numbers that small, I can fit thousands of books on my own little personal electronic reader. I can stream hours and hours and days and days of YouTube video without my computer ever getting measurably heavier. And as inomofatrin becomes that light, it becomes a lot more democratic, meaning that more teachers and presenters and crertoas and viewers than ever before can be involved. Right now, on YouTube, there is an explosion of coenntt like this happening. The three Vsauce channels are down there in the coernr. But everyone else, all together, collectively, their veiws dwarf what I can do alone or with the people that I work with, and that is really, really exciting. It turns out that tapping into people's curiosity and responsibly answering their qeoitnuss is a brilliant way to build fans and an audience and get in viewers. It's even a great way for brands and companies to biuld trust. So, claaunlictg the weight of a video is kind of a funny question, but I cannot wait to see what we ask and answer next. As always, thanks for watching. (Applause)

Open Cloze

Bean bags are awesome. But I see a few people out there who are standing, we've got some over here, and standing takes more work than lounging. Using the Live Strong Organization's online database of weight loss resources, you can calculate that by the time I'm done with this speech, those of you who are standing will have burned 7.5 more calories than those of you who are bean-bagging it. (________) Okay, here's a question, speaking of weight loss, specifically weight, this speech is live. I'm actually here in front of you guys, we're all here together. But this speech is being recorded and it will become a video that people can access all over the world on computers, mobile devices, televisions. I weight about 190 pounds. How much will the video weigh? Asking questions like that is what I do every week on my channel Vsauce. For the last two years, I have been asking really fun questions, mind-boggling questions, and approaching them as sincerely as I can, celebrating scientific concepts and scientists. And I research and write and produce and host and edit and upload and run the ______ media all by myself, but it's not ______, because Vsauce has more than 2 million subscribers, and every month, my ______ are seen by more than 20 _______ people. Yeah. (Applause) It's very exciting. I've found that asking a strange question is a great way to get people in, not just people, but fans. And fans are different than just _______ or an audience, because fans want to come back. They subscribe to you on YouTube and they want to _____ everything you've made and everything you plan to make in the future because we are curious people and sparking curiosity is great bait. It's a _____ way to _____ a _____. And once you've caught them, you have this captive audience that you can, with the goal in mind of answering the question, accidentally teach a lot of things to. So, let's take a look at some of my videos. Here are eight of them. But down here in the lower-right corner, "What Color is a Mirror?" When people see that, it's very difficult not to click, because you think, "Come on, are you serious? How could you possibly answer that question?" Well, so far, 7.6 million people have watched this five-minute video about what color a mirror is. And in that episode, I ______ the question and I get a chance to explain what would normally be kind of dry topics: optics, diffuse versus ________ reflection, how light works, how light works on the ______, and even the etymology of color terms like white and _____. Okay, spoiler alert: mirrors are not clear, they are not silvery, like they're often ___________. Mirrors, technically ________, are just a tiny, tiny, little bit ... green. You can demonstrate this by _______ two mirrors next to each other, facing so they reflect back and forth forever. Look down that infinite reflection, and it will get dimmer, because some light is lost or absorbed every time, but it will also become greener, because green light, that is light of a wavelength that we perceive as _____, is best reflected by most _______. Okay, so, how much does a _____ weigh? Well, when you stream a video onto your ________, that information is temporarily stored using electrons. And the number of electrons on your device won't actually increase or ________. But it takes energy to store them in one place, and, thanks to our ______ ______ ________, we know that ______ and mass are related. Okay, so here's the thing: let's say you're watching a YouTube video at a really nice __________, 720p. Assuming a typical bit rate, we can ______ that a ______ of YouTube video is going to need to involve about 10 million electrons on your device. Plugging all those electrons and the energy it takes to hold them in the _______ _____ for you to see the video, into that formula, we can figure out that one minute of YouTube video increases the mass of your computer by about 10 to the negative 19th grams. Written out, it looks like this. (Whistle) That's like nothing. You could call that nothing, and you wouldn't really get in trouble, because the best scales we've ever invented that we could try to use to actually to detect that ______ are only accurate to 10 to the negative 9th _____. So, we can't measure it, but we can, like we just did, calculate it. And that's really cool because when I was a kid, my school had two shelves of science _____. That was really cool, but I read all of them within, like, two ______, and it was hard to get more books because books are _____, you need space for them and moving books around is tougher than what we can do today. With numbers that small, I can fit thousands of books on my own little personal electronic reader. I can stream hours and hours and days and days of YouTube video without my computer ever getting measurably heavier. And as ___________ becomes that light, it becomes a lot more democratic, meaning that more teachers and presenters and ________ and viewers than ever before can be involved. Right now, on YouTube, there is an explosion of _______ like this happening. The three Vsauce channels are down there in the ______. But everyone else, all together, collectively, their _____ dwarf what I can do alone or with the people that I work with, and that is really, really exciting. It turns out that tapping into people's curiosity and responsibly answering their _________ is a brilliant way to build fans and an audience and get in viewers. It's even a great way for brands and companies to _____ trust. So, ___________ the weight of a video is kind of a funny question, but I cannot wait to see what we ask and answer next. As always, thanks for watching. (Applause)

Solution

  1. video
  2. laughter
  3. lonely
  4. illustrated
  5. black
  6. viewers
  7. corner
  8. putting
  9. computer
  10. specular
  11. views
  12. heavy
  13. grams
  14. answer
  15. videos
  16. mirrors
  17. catch
  18. place
  19. correct
  20. creators
  21. figure
  22. grades
  23. calculating
  24. watch
  25. energy
  26. social
  27. million
  28. human
  29. green
  30. change
  31. books
  32. content
  33. friend
  34. speaking
  35. questions
  36. great
  37. minute
  38. resolution
  39. build
  40. einstein
  41. decrease
  42. retina
  43. information
  44. albert

Original Text

Bean bags are awesome. But I see a few people out there who are standing, we've got some over here, and standing takes more work than lounging. Using the Live Strong Organization's online database of weight loss resources, you can calculate that by the time I'm done with this speech, those of you who are standing will have burned 7.5 more calories than those of you who are bean-bagging it. (Laughter) Okay, here's a question, speaking of weight loss, specifically weight, this speech is live. I'm actually here in front of you guys, we're all here together. But this speech is being recorded and it will become a video that people can access all over the world on computers, mobile devices, televisions. I weight about 190 pounds. How much will the video weigh? Asking questions like that is what I do every week on my channel Vsauce. For the last two years, I have been asking really fun questions, mind-boggling questions, and approaching them as sincerely as I can, celebrating scientific concepts and scientists. And I research and write and produce and host and edit and upload and run the social media all by myself, but it's not lonely, because Vsauce has more than 2 million subscribers, and every month, my videos are seen by more than 20 million people. Yeah. (Applause) It's very exciting. I've found that asking a strange question is a great way to get people in, not just people, but fans. And fans are different than just viewers or an audience, because fans want to come back. They subscribe to you on YouTube and they want to watch everything you've made and everything you plan to make in the future because we are curious people and sparking curiosity is great bait. It's a great way to catch a human. And once you've caught them, you have this captive audience that you can, with the goal in mind of answering the question, accidentally teach a lot of things to. So, let's take a look at some of my videos. Here are eight of them. But down here in the lower-right corner, "What Color is a Mirror?" When people see that, it's very difficult not to click, because you think, "Come on, are you serious? How could you possibly answer that question?" Well, so far, 7.6 million people have watched this five-minute video about what color a mirror is. And in that episode, I answer the question and I get a chance to explain what would normally be kind of dry topics: optics, diffuse versus specular reflection, how light works, how light works on the retina, and even the etymology of color terms like white and black. Okay, spoiler alert: mirrors are not clear, they are not silvery, like they're often illustrated. Mirrors, technically speaking, are just a tiny, tiny, little bit ... green. You can demonstrate this by putting two mirrors next to each other, facing so they reflect back and forth forever. Look down that infinite reflection, and it will get dimmer, because some light is lost or absorbed every time, but it will also become greener, because green light, that is light of a wavelength that we perceive as green, is best reflected by most mirrors. Okay, so, how much does a video weigh? Well, when you stream a video onto your computer, that information is temporarily stored using electrons. And the number of electrons on your device won't actually increase or decrease. But it takes energy to store them in one place, and, thanks to our friend Albert Einstein, we know that energy and mass are related. Okay, so here's the thing: let's say you're watching a YouTube video at a really nice resolution, 720p. Assuming a typical bit rate, we can figure that a minute of YouTube video is going to need to involve about 10 million electrons on your device. Plugging all those electrons and the energy it takes to hold them in the correct place for you to see the video, into that formula, we can figure out that one minute of YouTube video increases the mass of your computer by about 10 to the negative 19th grams. Written out, it looks like this. (Whistle) That's like nothing. You could call that nothing, and you wouldn't really get in trouble, because the best scales we've ever invented that we could try to use to actually to detect that change are only accurate to 10 to the negative 9th grams. So, we can't measure it, but we can, like we just did, calculate it. And that's really cool because when I was a kid, my school had two shelves of science books. That was really cool, but I read all of them within, like, two grades, and it was hard to get more books because books are heavy, you need space for them and moving books around is tougher than what we can do today. With numbers that small, I can fit thousands of books on my own little personal electronic reader. I can stream hours and hours and days and days of YouTube video without my computer ever getting measurably heavier. And as information becomes that light, it becomes a lot more democratic, meaning that more teachers and presenters and creators and viewers than ever before can be involved. Right now, on YouTube, there is an explosion of content like this happening. The three Vsauce channels are down there in the corner. But everyone else, all together, collectively, their views dwarf what I can do alone or with the people that I work with, and that is really, really exciting. It turns out that tapping into people's curiosity and responsibly answering their questions is a brilliant way to build fans and an audience and get in viewers. It's even a great way for brands and companies to build trust. So, calculating the weight of a video is kind of a funny question, but I cannot wait to see what we ask and answer next. As always, thanks for watching. (Applause)

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
youtube video 4
million people 2

Important Words

  1. absorbed
  2. access
  3. accidentally
  4. accurate
  5. albert
  6. answer
  7. answering
  8. applause
  9. approaching
  10. assuming
  11. audience
  12. awesome
  13. bags
  14. bait
  15. bean
  16. bit
  17. black
  18. books
  19. brands
  20. brilliant
  21. build
  22. burned
  23. calculate
  24. calculating
  25. call
  26. calories
  27. captive
  28. catch
  29. caught
  30. celebrating
  31. chance
  32. change
  33. channel
  34. channels
  35. clear
  36. click
  37. collectively
  38. color
  39. companies
  40. computer
  41. computers
  42. concepts
  43. content
  44. cool
  45. corner
  46. correct
  47. creators
  48. curiosity
  49. curious
  50. database
  51. days
  52. decrease
  53. democratic
  54. demonstrate
  55. detect
  56. device
  57. devices
  58. difficult
  59. diffuse
  60. dimmer
  61. dry
  62. dwarf
  63. edit
  64. einstein
  65. electronic
  66. electrons
  67. energy
  68. episode
  69. etymology
  70. exciting
  71. explain
  72. explosion
  73. facing
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  75. figure
  76. fit
  77. formula
  78. friend
  79. front
  80. fun
  81. funny
  82. future
  83. goal
  84. grades
  85. grams
  86. great
  87. green
  88. greener
  89. guys
  90. happening
  91. hard
  92. heavier
  93. heavy
  94. hold
  95. host
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  99. increase
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  101. infinite
  102. information
  103. invented
  104. involve
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  106. kid
  107. kind
  108. laughter
  109. light
  110. live
  111. lonely
  112. loss
  113. lost
  114. lot
  115. lounging
  116. mass
  117. meaning
  118. measurably
  119. measure
  120. media
  121. million
  122. mind
  123. minute
  124. mirror
  125. mirrors
  126. mobile
  127. month
  128. moving
  129. negative
  130. nice
  131. number
  132. numbers
  133. online
  134. optics
  135. people
  136. perceive
  137. personal
  138. place
  139. plan
  140. plugging
  141. possibly
  142. pounds
  143. presenters
  144. produce
  145. putting
  146. question
  147. questions
  148. rate
  149. read
  150. reader
  151. recorded
  152. reflect
  153. reflected
  154. reflection
  155. related
  156. research
  157. resolution
  158. resources
  159. responsibly
  160. retina
  161. run
  162. scales
  163. school
  164. science
  165. scientific
  166. scientists
  167. shelves
  168. silvery
  169. sincerely
  170. small
  171. social
  172. space
  173. sparking
  174. speaking
  175. specifically
  176. specular
  177. speech
  178. spoiler
  179. standing
  180. store
  181. stored
  182. strange
  183. stream
  184. strong
  185. subscribe
  186. subscribers
  187. takes
  188. tapping
  189. teach
  190. teachers
  191. technically
  192. televisions
  193. temporarily
  194. terms
  195. thousands
  196. time
  197. tiny
  198. today
  199. tougher
  200. trouble
  201. trust
  202. turns
  203. typical
  204. upload
  205. video
  206. videos
  207. viewers
  208. views
  209. vsauce
  210. wait
  211. watch
  212. watched
  213. watching
  214. wavelength
  215. week
  216. weigh
  217. weight
  218. whistle
  219. white
  220. work
  221. works
  222. world
  223. write
  224. written
  225. yeah
  226. years
  227. youtube