full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Rob Knight: How our microbes make us who we are

Unscramble the Blue Letters

So these different microbes have all these different kinds of functions that I told you about, everything from digesting food to involvement in different kdnis of diseases, metabolizing drugs, and so forth. So how do they do all this stuff? Well, in part it's because although there's just three pounds of those microbes in our gut, they really outnumber us. And so how much do they obunemutr us? Well, it depends on what you think of as our bodies. Is it our cells? Well, each of us consists of about 10 trillion huamn cells, but we harbor as many as 100 trillion microbial clles. So they outnumber us 10 to one. Now, you might think, well, we're human because of our DNA, but it turns out that each of us has about 20,000 human genes, depending on what you count exactly, but as many as two million to 20 mliloin microbial genes. So whichever way we look at it, we're vastly outnumbered by our microbial symbionts. And it turns out that in addition to traces of our human DNA, we also leave tcears of our mboircail DNA on everything we touch. We seohwd in a sdtuy a few years ago that you can actually match the palm of someone's hand up to the computer mouse that they use routinely with up to 95 percent accuracy. So this came out in a seictnfiic journal a few years ago, but more importantly, it was featured on "CSI: maimi," so you really know it's true. (Laughter)

Open Cloze

So these different microbes have all these different kinds of functions that I told you about, everything from digesting food to involvement in different _____ of diseases, metabolizing drugs, and so forth. So how do they do all this stuff? Well, in part it's because although there's just three pounds of those microbes in our gut, they really outnumber us. And so how much do they _________ us? Well, it depends on what you think of as our bodies. Is it our cells? Well, each of us consists of about 10 trillion _____ cells, but we harbor as many as 100 trillion microbial _____. So they outnumber us 10 to one. Now, you might think, well, we're human because of our DNA, but it turns out that each of us has about 20,000 human genes, depending on what you count exactly, but as many as two million to 20 _______ microbial genes. So whichever way we look at it, we're vastly outnumbered by our microbial symbionts. And it turns out that in addition to traces of our human DNA, we also leave ______ of our _________ DNA on everything we touch. We ______ in a _____ a few years ago that you can actually match the palm of someone's hand up to the computer mouse that they use routinely with up to 95 percent accuracy. So this came out in a __________ journal a few years ago, but more importantly, it was featured on "CSI: _____," so you really know it's true. (Laughter)

Solution

  1. microbial
  2. cells
  3. million
  4. scientific
  5. outnumber
  6. human
  7. traces
  8. miami
  9. study
  10. showed
  11. kinds

Original Text

So these different microbes have all these different kinds of functions that I told you about, everything from digesting food to involvement in different kinds of diseases, metabolizing drugs, and so forth. So how do they do all this stuff? Well, in part it's because although there's just three pounds of those microbes in our gut, they really outnumber us. And so how much do they outnumber us? Well, it depends on what you think of as our bodies. Is it our cells? Well, each of us consists of about 10 trillion human cells, but we harbor as many as 100 trillion microbial cells. So they outnumber us 10 to one. Now, you might think, well, we're human because of our DNA, but it turns out that each of us has about 20,000 human genes, depending on what you count exactly, but as many as two million to 20 million microbial genes. So whichever way we look at it, we're vastly outnumbered by our microbial symbionts. And it turns out that in addition to traces of our human DNA, we also leave traces of our microbial DNA on everything we touch. We showed in a study a few years ago that you can actually match the palm of someone's hand up to the computer mouse that they use routinely with up to 95 percent accuracy. So this came out in a scientific journal a few years ago, but more importantly, it was featured on "CSI: Miami," so you really know it's true. (Laughter)

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
human microbiome 5
microbial community 5
microbial communities 4
fecal community 3
percent accuracy 3
project called 2
human body 2
point represents 2
body site 2
human dna 2
person sitting 2
sample size 2
ear infection 2
microbiome project 2
healthy adults 2
children develop 2
adult fecal 2
gut microbial 2
inflammatory bowel 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
human microbiome project 2
adult fecal community 2

Important Words

  1. accuracy
  2. addition
  3. bodies
  4. cells
  5. computer
  6. consists
  7. count
  8. depending
  9. depends
  10. digesting
  11. diseases
  12. dna
  13. drugs
  14. featured
  15. food
  16. functions
  17. genes
  18. gut
  19. hand
  20. harbor
  21. human
  22. importantly
  23. involvement
  24. journal
  25. kinds
  26. laughter
  27. leave
  28. match
  29. metabolizing
  30. miami
  31. microbes
  32. microbial
  33. million
  34. mouse
  35. outnumber
  36. outnumbered
  37. palm
  38. part
  39. percent
  40. pounds
  41. routinely
  42. scientific
  43. showed
  44. study
  45. stuff
  46. symbionts
  47. told
  48. touch
  49. traces
  50. trillion
  51. true
  52. turns
  53. vastly
  54. years