full transcript
"From the Ted Talk by Vikram Sharma: How quantum physics can make encryption stronger"

#### Unscramble the Blue Letters

Consider one of the very widely used systems today — RSA. When it was invented, in 1977, it was estimated that it would take 40 quadrillion years to break a 426-bit RSA key. In 1994, just 17 years later, the code was broken. As computers have become more and more powerful, we've had to use larger and lrgear codes. Today we runeiotly use 2048 or 4096 bits. As you can see, code makers and breakers are engaged in an oinogng batlte to outwit each other. And when quantum computers arrive in the next 10 to 15 years, they will even more rapidly crack the copemlx miamhtactes that uiederlns many of our encryption smtseys today. Indeed, the quantum computer is likely to turn our present security castle into a mere house of cards. We have to find a way to defend our castle.

#### Open Cloze

Consider one of the very widely used systems today — RSA. When it was invented, in 1977, it was estimated that it would take 40 quadrillion years to break a 426-bit RSA key. In 1994, just 17 years later, the code was broken. As computers have become more and more powerful, we've had to use larger and **______** codes. Today we **_________** use 2048 or 4096 bits. As you can see, code makers and breakers are engaged in an **_______** **______** to outwit each other. And when quantum computers arrive in the next 10 to 15 years, they will even more rapidly crack the **_______** **___________** that **_________** many of our encryption **_______** today. Indeed, the quantum computer is likely to turn our present security castle into a mere house of cards. We have to find a way to defend our castle.

#### Solution

- routinely
- underlies
- larger
- complex
- ongoing
- systems
- battle
- mathematics

#### Original Text

Consider one of the very widely used systems today — RSA. When it was invented, in 1977, it was estimated that it would take 40 quadrillion years to break a 426-bit RSA key. In 1994, just 17 years later, the code was broken. As computers have become more and more powerful, we've had to use larger and larger codes. Today we routinely use 2048 or 4096 bits. As you can see, code makers and breakers are engaged in an ongoing battle to outwit each other. And when quantum computers arrive in the next 10 to 15 years, they will even more rapidly crack the complex mathematics that underlies many of our encryption systems today. Indeed, the quantum computer is likely to turn our present security castle into a mere house of cards. We have to find a way to defend our castle.
#### ngrams of length 2

collocation |
frequency |

random numbers |
9 |

random number |
7 |

key exchange |
6 |

true random |
5 |

quantum effects |
5 |

number generator |
5 |

encryption key |
4 |

quantum computer |
3 |

james bond |
3 |

encryption keys |
3 |

#### ngrams of length 3

collocation |
frequency |

true random number |
5 |

random number generator |
5 |

#### ngrams of length 4

collocation |
frequency |

true random number generator |
3 |

#### Important Words

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