full transcript
"From the Ted Talk by Vikram Sharma: How quantum physics can make encryption stronger"

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Consider one of the very widely used systems today — RSA. When it was invented, in 1977, it was estimated that it would take 40 quadrillion years to break a 426-bit RSA key. In 1994, just 17 years later, the code was broken. As computers have become more and more powerful, we've had to use larger and lrgear codes. Today we runeiotly use 2048 or 4096 bits. As you can see, code makers and breakers are engaged in an oinogng batlte to outwit each other. And when quantum computers arrive in the next 10 to 15 years, they will even more rapidly crack the copemlx miamhtactes that uiederlns many of our encryption smtseys today. Indeed, the quantum computer is likely to turn our present security castle into a mere house of cards. We have to find a way to defend our castle.

Open Cloze

Consider one of the very widely used systems today — RSA. When it was invented, in 1977, it was estimated that it would take 40 quadrillion years to break a 426-bit RSA key. In 1994, just 17 years later, the code was broken. As computers have become more and more powerful, we've had to use larger and ______ codes. Today we _________ use 2048 or 4096 bits. As you can see, code makers and breakers are engaged in an _______ ______ to outwit each other. And when quantum computers arrive in the next 10 to 15 years, they will even more rapidly crack the _______ ___________ that _________ many of our encryption _______ today. Indeed, the quantum computer is likely to turn our present security castle into a mere house of cards. We have to find a way to defend our castle.

Solution

  1. routinely
  2. underlies
  3. larger
  4. complex
  5. ongoing
  6. systems
  7. battle
  8. mathematics

Original Text

Consider one of the very widely used systems today — RSA. When it was invented, in 1977, it was estimated that it would take 40 quadrillion years to break a 426-bit RSA key. In 1994, just 17 years later, the code was broken. As computers have become more and more powerful, we've had to use larger and larger codes. Today we routinely use 2048 or 4096 bits. As you can see, code makers and breakers are engaged in an ongoing battle to outwit each other. And when quantum computers arrive in the next 10 to 15 years, they will even more rapidly crack the complex mathematics that underlies many of our encryption systems today. Indeed, the quantum computer is likely to turn our present security castle into a mere house of cards. We have to find a way to defend our castle.

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
random numbers 9
random number 7
key exchange 6
true random 5
quantum effects 5
number generator 5
encryption key 4
quantum computer 3
james bond 3
encryption keys 3

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
true random number 5
random number generator 5

ngrams of length 4

collocation frequency
true random number generator 3

Important Words

  1. arrive
  2. battle
  3. bits
  4. break
  5. breakers
  6. broken
  7. cards
  8. castle
  9. code
  10. codes
  11. complex
  12. computer
  13. computers
  14. crack
  15. defend
  16. encryption
  17. engaged
  18. estimated
  19. find
  20. house
  21. invented
  22. key
  23. larger
  24. makers
  25. mathematics
  26. mere
  27. ongoing
  28. outwit
  29. powerful
  30. present
  31. quadrillion
  32. quantum
  33. rapidly
  34. routinely
  35. rsa
  36. security
  37. systems
  38. today
  39. turn
  40. underlies
  41. widely
  42. years