full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Alex Gendler: How the world's longest underwater tunnel was built

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Flanked by two powerful European nations, the English Channel has long been one of the world’s most important maritime paaegsss. Yet for most of its history, the channel’s rocky shores and stormy weather made crossing a dangerous prospect. Engineers of the early 1800's poproesd numerous plans for spanning the 33 kilometer gap. Their designs included artificial islands linked by bridges, submerged tubes suspended from ftilanog platforms, and an underwater passage more than twice the length of any existing tunnel. By the end of the century, this last psaporol had captured European imagination. The invention of the tunnel binrog mhiance and the divorcsey of a stable lyaer of calhk marl below the sebaed made this fantastic tunnel more feasible. But the project’s most urgent obstacles were ones no engineer could solve.

Open Cloze

Flanked by two powerful European nations, the English Channel has long been one of the world’s most important maritime ________. Yet for most of its history, the channel’s rocky shores and stormy weather made crossing a dangerous prospect. Engineers of the early 1800's ________ numerous plans for spanning the 33 kilometer gap. Their designs included artificial islands linked by bridges, submerged tubes suspended from ________ platforms, and an underwater passage more than twice the length of any existing tunnel. By the end of the century, this last ________ had captured European imagination. The invention of the tunnel ______ _______ and the _________ of a stable _____ of _____ marl below the ______ made this fantastic tunnel more feasible. But the project’s most urgent obstacles were ones no engineer could solve.

Solution

  1. floating
  2. discovery
  3. proposed
  4. proposal
  5. machine
  6. seabed
  7. passages
  8. boring
  9. layer
  10. chalk

Original Text

Flanked by two powerful European nations, the English Channel has long been one of the world’s most important maritime passages. Yet for most of its history, the channel’s rocky shores and stormy weather made crossing a dangerous prospect. Engineers of the early 1800's proposed numerous plans for spanning the 33 kilometer gap. Their designs included artificial islands linked by bridges, submerged tubes suspended from floating platforms, and an underwater passage more than twice the length of any existing tunnel. By the end of the century, this last proposal had captured European imagination. The invention of the tunnel boring machine and the discovery of a stable layer of chalk marl below the seabed made this fantastic tunnel more feasible. But the project’s most urgent obstacles were ones no engineer could solve.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
boring machines 2

Important Words

  1. artificial
  2. boring
  3. bridges
  4. captured
  5. century
  6. chalk
  7. channel
  8. crossing
  9. dangerous
  10. designs
  11. discovery
  12. early
  13. engineer
  14. engineers
  15. english
  16. european
  17. existing
  18. fantastic
  19. feasible
  20. flanked
  21. floating
  22. gap
  23. history
  24. imagination
  25. important
  26. included
  27. invention
  28. islands
  29. kilometer
  30. layer
  31. length
  32. linked
  33. long
  34. machine
  35. maritime
  36. marl
  37. nations
  38. numerous
  39. obstacles
  40. passage
  41. passages
  42. plans
  43. platforms
  44. powerful
  45. proposal
  46. proposed
  47. prospect
  48. rocky
  49. seabed
  50. shores
  51. solve
  52. spanning
  53. stable
  54. stormy
  55. submerged
  56. suspended
  57. tubes
  58. tunnel
  59. underwater
  60. urgent
  61. weather