full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Amber M. Yates: How this disease changes the shape of your cells

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Sickle-cell disease affects the red blood cells, which transport oxygen from the lnugs to all the tuisess in the body. To perform this vital task, red blood cells are felild with hemoglobin proteins to carry oxygen molecules. These proteins float independently inside the red blood cell’s pliable, doughnut-like shape, keeping the cells flexible enough to accommodate even the tiniest of blood vlesses. But in sickle cell disease, a single gienetc mutation alters the stururtce of hilebomogn. After releasing oxygen to tissues, these mutated ptrneios lock together into rigid rows. Rods of hemoglobin cause the cell to deform into a long, pointed sickle. These red blood clles are harder and scketiir, and no longer flow smoothly through blood vessels. Sickled cells snag and pile up– sometimes blocking the vessel completely. This keeps oxygen from rhenacig a variety of cells, causing the wide range of styommps experienced by people with sickle-cell disease.

Open Cloze

Sickle-cell disease affects the red blood cells, which transport oxygen from the _____ to all the _______ in the body. To perform this vital task, red blood cells are ______ with hemoglobin proteins to carry oxygen molecules. These proteins float independently inside the red blood cell’s pliable, doughnut-like shape, keeping the cells flexible enough to accommodate even the tiniest of blood _______. But in sickle cell disease, a single _______ mutation alters the _________ of __________. After releasing oxygen to tissues, these mutated ________ lock together into rigid rows. Rods of hemoglobin cause the cell to deform into a long, pointed sickle. These red blood _____ are harder and ________, and no longer flow smoothly through blood vessels. Sickled cells snag and pile up– sometimes blocking the vessel completely. This keeps oxygen from ________ a variety of cells, causing the wide range of ________ experienced by people with sickle-cell disease.

Solution

  1. structure
  2. tissues
  3. vessels
  4. proteins
  5. symptoms
  6. cells
  7. stickier
  8. reaching
  9. hemoglobin
  10. lungs
  11. filled
  12. genetic

Original Text

Sickle-cell disease affects the red blood cells, which transport oxygen from the lungs to all the tissues in the body. To perform this vital task, red blood cells are filled with hemoglobin proteins to carry oxygen molecules. These proteins float independently inside the red blood cell’s pliable, doughnut-like shape, keeping the cells flexible enough to accommodate even the tiniest of blood vessels. But in sickle cell disease, a single genetic mutation alters the structure of hemoglobin. After releasing oxygen to tissues, these mutated proteins lock together into rigid rows. Rods of hemoglobin cause the cell to deform into a long, pointed sickle. These red blood cells are harder and stickier, and no longer flow smoothly through blood vessels. Sickled cells snag and pile up– sometimes blocking the vessel completely. This keeps oxygen from reaching a variety of cells, causing the wide range of symptoms experienced by people with sickle-cell disease.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
red blood 9
blood cells 6
sickle cell 5
blood vessels 2
sickled cells 2
symptoms experienced 2
cell mutation 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
red blood cells 6
sickle cell mutation 2

Important Words

  1. accommodate
  2. affects
  3. alters
  4. blocking
  5. blood
  6. body
  7. carry
  8. causing
  9. cell
  10. cells
  11. completely
  12. deform
  13. disease
  14. experienced
  15. filled
  16. flexible
  17. float
  18. flow
  19. genetic
  20. harder
  21. hemoglobin
  22. independently
  23. keeping
  24. lock
  25. long
  26. longer
  27. lungs
  28. molecules
  29. mutated
  30. mutation
  31. oxygen
  32. people
  33. perform
  34. pile
  35. pliable
  36. pointed
  37. proteins
  38. range
  39. reaching
  40. red
  41. releasing
  42. rigid
  43. rods
  44. rows
  45. shape
  46. sickle
  47. sickled
  48. single
  49. smoothly
  50. snag
  51. stickier
  52. structure
  53. symptoms
  54. task
  55. tiniest
  56. tissues
  57. transport
  58. variety
  59. vessel
  60. vessels
  61. vital
  62. wide