full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Dan Gibson: How to build synthetic DNA and send it across the internet

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Once we chemically synthesized the complete bacterial genome, our next challenge was to find a way to convert it into a free-living, self-replicating cell. Our acprpoah was to think of the genome as the operating system of the cell, with the cell containing the hardware necessary to boot up the genome. Through a lot of trial and error, we dpeeoelvd a procedure where we could rrerpoagm clles and even convert one bacterial species into another, by replacing the genome of one cell with that of another. This genome transplantation technology then paved the way for the booting-up of genomes written by scientists and not by Mother nraute. In 2010, all of the tooneghciels that we had been developing for reinadg and writing DNA all came together when we announced the creation of the first synthetic cell, which of course, we called stnihya.

Open Cloze

Once we chemically synthesized the complete bacterial genome, our next challenge was to find a way to convert it into a free-living, self-replicating cell. Our ________ was to think of the genome as the operating system of the cell, with the cell containing the hardware necessary to boot up the genome. Through a lot of trial and error, we _________ a procedure where we could _________ _____ and even convert one bacterial species into another, by replacing the genome of one cell with that of another. This genome transplantation technology then paved the way for the booting-up of genomes written by scientists and not by Mother ______. In 2010, all of the ____________ that we had been developing for _______ and writing DNA all came together when we announced the creation of the first synthetic cell, which of course, we called _______.

Solution

  1. nature
  2. reading
  3. reprogram
  4. technologies
  5. synthia
  6. cells
  7. approach
  8. developed

Original Text

Once we chemically synthesized the complete bacterial genome, our next challenge was to find a way to convert it into a free-living, self-replicating cell. Our approach was to think of the genome as the operating system of the cell, with the cell containing the hardware necessary to boot up the genome. Through a lot of trial and error, we developed a procedure where we could reprogram cells and even convert one bacterial species into another, by replacing the genome of one cell with that of another. This genome transplantation technology then paved the way for the booting-up of genomes written by scientists and not by Mother Nature. In 2010, all of the technologies that we had been developing for reading and writing DNA all came together when we announced the creation of the first synthetic cell, which of course, we called Synthia.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

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collocation frequency
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writing dna 6
dna code 5
short pieces 5
fax machines 5
biological teleportation 4
living cells 3
complete bacterial 3
gibson assembly 3
synthetic cell 3
synthetic cells 2
bird flu 2
vaccine manufacturing 2
manufacturing process 2
vaccine instructions 2
write dna 2
synthetic dna 2
bacterial genomes 2
bacterial genome 2
laboratory workflows 2
dna sequence 2
fax machine 2
digital information 2
printing personalized 2
digital instructions 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
flu vaccine manufacturing 2
vaccine manufacturing process 2
flu vaccine instructions 2

ngrams of length 4

collocation frequency
flu vaccine manufacturing process 2

Important Words

  1. announced
  2. approach
  3. bacterial
  4. boot
  5. called
  6. cell
  7. cells
  8. challenge
  9. chemically
  10. complete
  11. convert
  12. creation
  13. developed
  14. developing
  15. dna
  16. error
  17. find
  18. genome
  19. genomes
  20. hardware
  21. lot
  22. mother
  23. nature
  24. operating
  25. paved
  26. procedure
  27. reading
  28. replacing
  29. reprogram
  30. scientists
  31. species
  32. synthesized
  33. synthetic
  34. synthia
  35. system
  36. technologies
  37. technology
  38. transplantation
  39. trial
  40. writing
  41. written