full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Yannick Roudaut: How today's truths shape tomorrow's possibilities

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Indeed, for 20 years, I worked in finance. I knew everything about fncaine, for sure. I knew the global ecnomoy because it was my life. All the topics that you could bring up about ecology, the end of the world, etc., that I knew like the back of my hand I didn't really believe in them. In 2007, an etrmexley unusual event occurred, you may remember, the subprime cisris, the cpollase of big American banks. It was an electric shock. I had a fair few srtmoy cvaoeisnronts with my wife about the matter, about my job, on the limits of the model. Besides the crisis, I reelazid that I was completely wrong, that we were heading for disaster. The whole conception I had of the world, all the certainties that I had until then, were all fallen apart within a few months. That's why I'm here tonight, I've realized that, filalny, it wasn't all so bad, and that it was an opportunity because we have the exceptional opportunity of living in an ecatnpeoxil period of hmaun history: we are going to change the world. But before changing the world, we have to do something, we have to do some grieving, we have to turn the page - turning the page of the world we live in today. To do so, I need some help from an American who goes by the name of jaerd Diamond and who pblishued "Collapse," and soon you will see that the 5 factors of the collapse of civilizations are reunited today. Jared Diamond has identified 5 factors in which we find the collapse of the Mayas, the Vikings, and all of the great Mesopotamian civilizations. And every time, those 5 fcotars were reunited. The bad news is that the 5 factors are reunited only at the beginning of the 21st century, but this time not only a single ciivtaioziln is threatened but the global village, humanity, all of us. It's extremely important to be aware of this. The first factor of the collapse is the ernomtevinnal factor. For two centuries, especially the last 50 yeras, we have done environmental damage, sometimes irreversible. The second factor is climate change. All the great civilizations did face those changes in cltiame. This weakens the ecosystems, that wienkneag also results in sgorahte of resources, destabilization of a society encmoicoal, geopolitical, social consequences, you name it. Third factor, still reunited today, the revival of military conflicts. These two first factors result in: when the ecosystems are destabilized and there is a shortage of resources, we continue having conflicts, we make war. And let me remind you, at the moment France is at war in Mali; let's not forget that. Fourth factor, equally important than the last one, the cancellation of diplomatic and commercial alliances. Things look bad, and the alliances concluded yesterday are undermined. Today, we are all aware of the fact that the future of epuroe is unknown, we don't know what will come. And the fifth fctoar, not the least worrisome: the blindness of our elites. In this whole collapse of the civilization, the elites are not able to evaluate the fall of their world. They are incapable of changing their prism for the analysis. And the result? The result is simple: we will have a political caste system which emphasizes, which aterecealcs the collapse of a world. After everything I just told you, you have to know that the end of a world is not the same as the end of the world. If I told you that we live in an extraordinary time, eaatrnrrxoidy in the sense of etymology, there is no doubt, we live in a transition period, between two worlds. In the world of today, we are about to turn the page. And the world of tmorroow, the world to come, the sustainable world, about which I am tianlkg today, starts to stlghiy assume its shape but there is still nothing piecrse. How do we live? We live in a hiarsoctil period inspiring enough that we have to reinvent things. The nearest time period, in which man reinvented everything, is the Renaissance. The question which comes up in the 21st century is, "Do we experience a new Renaissance?" Let's see if the factors of a renaissance are reunited. First factor of a renaissance is a new understanding of the world. In the 15th century, Columbus discovered the Americas, man dsieocervd the immensity of planet Earth, we discovered the immensity of the world. What happens at the moment, for some decades, for some years? We discover the finiteness of the world. The planet is very small in terms of resources, capacity, if we look at the current economic model. New utesddairnnng. Second factor: The Renaissance is a peoird of very much creativity. We all know Leonardo da Vinci, the Flemish painters. 2012, 2013, what has happened? Very much creativity. 3D printing is only one example. There are lots of others. Third factor of the Renaissance: Contrary to common beliefs, the Renaissance was not only a period of creativity, but also of much violence: religious wars, civil wars, etxitminoaren of the Native aainrmecs, slavery. And how is it in 2012, 2013? Violence on a dialy basis, and cleihrdn which get killed in school by automatic wnaoeps. Fourth factor of a renaissance: The whole world knows Gutenberg the inventor of the printing press who fundamentally cagehnd the distribution of knowledge in Europe, and later in the rest of the wlord. ingmaie, today, there is a new technological tool which allows us to distribute knowledge in a whole new way. This tool, which we have in our hands, provides instantaneous iioaornftmn. We hold the knowledge of the world in our hdnas. Soon, we will see how this is going to change. And finally, a renaissance - that brings me to the subject of today - it's the fact that all the certainties of humanity have fallen apart. Let me remind you, from Aristoteles through Ptolemy in the 2nd century to the rciseansnae, the Earth was flat, man was the center of the world, and the stars ternud around us. And those who dared to question this unique thought, those who deard to dispute this riveeced, non-negotiable truth, - you know what came next - had to deal with the Inquisition. At the stake, they had to answer the question. Copernicus and geialle had nearly paid with their lives because they dared to say that the Earth was not flat and it was not the center of the universe. So today, the question prstienneg itself to us in the 21st century is: "Are we committing the same mistake as our ancestors? Are we, also in making the mistake, or in our certainties, the ones who will fall apart over the next few years?" The next question which follows is: "What are those certainties which are of received and non-negotiable value, which could fall apart in 10, 15, 20, or 50 years?" There are a lot of them. As a former economist, there are at least three certainties in economy. At first, there is the trtuh that growth is the only motor of the economy. Let me remind you what the word 'economy' means in Greek. Economy means resource management, domain and household management. So it doesn't necessarily mean growth. It's not a synonym. Second truth which could fall apart is that growth is infinite. That's our consumption model in a finite and iancsrligney shrinking world as the population grows more and more but with less resources. And we don't question this dogma. Third dogma, third received truth is the necessary sacrifice of the living in favor of this growth. But still, we have authorized the right to pultloe, to right to pisoon, the right to itcainotxe. Why? Because growth dmaends it. The question that we are conreotfnd with today is: If we continue like this, if we continue to sfircay the linivg, do we challenge this, will we authorize this dialogue? The answer is also not that evident because we can ask ourselves if the people who question these dogmas of gotwrh as motor of the economy, and of the myth of infinite growth are today maybe still seen like yesterday's heretics. I must say that I am not sure, that at this time, in the 21st century, we show a great wisdom to those who dare to question a system which we all benefit from. It should be extremely important for us to keep an open mind. And yet, we become more and more people. All here, I think, are convinced of the fact that we know that the road we have taken for two centuries leads us directly to - how did the philosopher Jonas say? To a tgraic impasse. The economic development on which we base our model leads us to a tragic ismapse. Hans Jonas adds a very beautiful expression: "Nature will eeltanvluy make its ultimate veto, anyway, and it will be over." After what I just said, another question aresis I am concerned with personally: "What will our children and descendants think of our behavior, our stubbornness of our osoissebn of a dctvsutreie economic meodl?" It is very likely that they will call us perhaps birnrbaaas of the living world, and maybe they will feel the same contempt, the same indignation which we can feel today about those who developed slavery two or three centuries ago. Our behavior today is not any better than that of those we despise today. Why? Because three centuries ago, svlreay was non-negotiable. The European and American economic model was besad on slavery. And today, in 2013, what happens? Our entire economic model, our entire society is based on what? On exploitation, on the sacrifice of the living. The question, which, of course, arises is, "What are we going to do?" But before we know what we will do we have to know why we got there in order not to commit the same mistake in tomorrow's world. And how did we get there? The asnwer is simple and can be said in a few words. The philosopher Descartes already said it four centuries ago: "Man is the only master and owner of nature." Period. We dominate nature, we shape and form it. We do what we want. But what has hpaenepd since this Cartesian thought? We consider nature as a bottomless pit, as a mine where we draw from and throw things. And that's the problem. We consider this kind of nature as what? Finally, that puts man outside of nature. And this exteriority is our problem. In 1990, Michel srrees had an extremely truthful thuoght, like always, he said: "But finally, the notion of nature is a problem for us because nature assumes that man is put into, surrounded by a living world. We are disconnected from nature. As long as we haven't soveld that problem, as long as we haven't reconciled with nature, it won't work. It's not about sacralizing nature, or putting it on an altar like a sacred gdoedss, it's just about including nature and not acting against or without it." Well, how are we going to do that? The conclusion of my talk is we'll have to organize it, really simple. It's extremely simple, we need a new controversy. What is a controversy? It's a dispute, a global debtae. What happened in Valladolid in the 16th ceurnty, in 1550? A dispute took place in Spain as to whether Native Americans are living beings or not. Because if we exploited this tame workforce for free, we would develop the New World. If they were human biegns we couldn't make them slaves. That would be intolerable. So, we discussed about the hnaumtiy of Native Americans. In the 21st century, we need to organize a new controversy. But this time it will be about determining where are the tolerance limits towards ntruae compared to human activity. What can nature bear? What kind of economic model can it bear? Do we have the right to pollute, the right to destroy the future of our children and their common heritage? This new cesrovtonry allows us to draft the Universal Declaration on the Duties of Man towards Nature. Yes, I said duties. Why? The Declaration on Human rihtgs has been the corner stone of the modern world, of today's world. The Universal dtcieoraaln on the Duties of Man will be the constnorere of the new tomorrow. The declaration will fix the limits of our activity. But how to launch this new controversy? It needs to be organized. But before organizing and launching it, you will tell me: "Roudaut has taken drugs. He's a utoapin. He lives in an ivory tower. it's all in his fantasy." Once more, I go back to history. Who would have thought before Constantin and Theodosius I that the Romans would see their empire dosetreyd by a handful of people from inside cealld Christians? Who would have thought before the French Revolution and the end of the monarchy that a hnfuadl of men would wirte the Universal Declaration on Human Rights? tadoy, those who reflect about another world, who strive for new values, are perhaps - perhaps you and I are - the first Christians of the rmoan Empire. We may be about to change the things from inside through the only aritpsoian of our values to another world. How to organize this new controversy? That's very silpme because of an uceernpndeted cagnlhele, we have a new tool in our hands, and that's cctnoneoin. We are all connected, and that will change everything. The fact that we are connected allows us to launch a controversy to consider the world of tomorrow. I fiinsh my talk with this connection, as from tonight on, I suggest to launch the first tweet about the new controversy. Here and now in Nantes, here we go, sent. I invite you to continue the debate without me, after or with me. Thank you. (Applause)

Open Cloze

Indeed, for 20 years, I worked in finance. I knew everything about _______, for sure. I knew the global _______ because it was my life. All the topics that you could bring up about ecology, the end of the world, etc., that I knew like the back of my hand I didn't really believe in them. In 2007, an _________ unusual event occurred, you may remember, the subprime ______, the ________ of big American banks. It was an electric shock. I had a fair few ______ _____________ with my wife about the matter, about my job, on the limits of the model. Besides the crisis, I ________ that I was completely wrong, that we were heading for disaster. The whole conception I had of the world, all the certainties that I had until then, were all fallen apart within a few months. That's why I'm here tonight, I've realized that, _______, it wasn't all so bad, and that it was an opportunity because we have the exceptional opportunity of living in an ___________ period of _____ history: we are going to change the world. But before changing the world, we have to do something, we have to do some grieving, we have to turn the page - turning the page of the world we live in today. To do so, I need some help from an American who goes by the name of _____ Diamond and who _________ "Collapse," and soon you will see that the 5 factors of the collapse of civilizations are reunited today. Jared Diamond has identified 5 factors in which we find the collapse of the Mayas, the Vikings, and all of the great Mesopotamian civilizations. And every time, those 5 _______ were reunited. The bad news is that the 5 factors are reunited only at the beginning of the 21st century, but this time not only a single ____________ is threatened but the global village, humanity, all of us. It's extremely important to be aware of this. The first factor of the collapse is the _____________ factor. For two centuries, especially the last 50 _____, we have done environmental damage, sometimes irreversible. The second factor is climate change. All the great civilizations did face those changes in _______. This weakens the ecosystems, that _________ also results in ________ of resources, destabilization of a society __________, geopolitical, social consequences, you name it. Third factor, still reunited today, the revival of military conflicts. These two first factors result in: when the ecosystems are destabilized and there is a shortage of resources, we continue having conflicts, we make war. And let me remind you, at the moment France is at war in Mali; let's not forget that. Fourth factor, equally important than the last one, the cancellation of diplomatic and commercial alliances. Things look bad, and the alliances concluded yesterday are undermined. Today, we are all aware of the fact that the future of ______ is unknown, we don't know what will come. And the fifth ______, not the least worrisome: the blindness of our elites. In this whole collapse of the civilization, the elites are not able to evaluate the fall of their world. They are incapable of changing their prism for the analysis. And the result? The result is simple: we will have a political caste system which emphasizes, which ___________ the collapse of a world. After everything I just told you, you have to know that the end of a world is not the same as the end of the world. If I told you that we live in an extraordinary time, _____________ in the sense of etymology, there is no doubt, we live in a transition period, between two worlds. In the world of today, we are about to turn the page. And the world of ________, the world to come, the sustainable world, about which I am _______ today, starts to _______ assume its shape but there is still nothing _______. How do we live? We live in a __________ period inspiring enough that we have to reinvent things. The nearest time period, in which man reinvented everything, is the Renaissance. The question which comes up in the 21st century is, "Do we experience a new Renaissance?" Let's see if the factors of a renaissance are reunited. First factor of a renaissance is a new understanding of the world. In the 15th century, Columbus discovered the Americas, man __________ the immensity of planet Earth, we discovered the immensity of the world. What happens at the moment, for some decades, for some years? We discover the finiteness of the world. The planet is very small in terms of resources, capacity, if we look at the current economic model. New _____________. Second factor: The Renaissance is a ______ of very much creativity. We all know Leonardo da Vinci, the Flemish painters. 2012, 2013, what has happened? Very much creativity. 3D printing is only one example. There are lots of others. Third factor of the Renaissance: Contrary to common beliefs, the Renaissance was not only a period of creativity, but also of much violence: religious wars, civil wars, _____________ of the Native _________, slavery. And how is it in 2012, 2013? Violence on a _____ basis, and ________ which get killed in school by automatic _______. Fourth factor of a renaissance: The whole world knows Gutenberg the inventor of the printing press who fundamentally _______ the distribution of knowledge in Europe, and later in the rest of the _____. _______, today, there is a new technological tool which allows us to distribute knowledge in a whole new way. This tool, which we have in our hands, provides instantaneous ___________. We hold the knowledge of the world in our _____. Soon, we will see how this is going to change. And finally, a renaissance - that brings me to the subject of today - it's the fact that all the certainties of humanity have fallen apart. Let me remind you, from Aristoteles through Ptolemy in the 2nd century to the ___________, the Earth was flat, man was the center of the world, and the stars ______ around us. And those who dared to question this unique thought, those who _____ to dispute this ________, non-negotiable truth, - you know what came next - had to deal with the Inquisition. At the stake, they had to answer the question. Copernicus and _______ had nearly paid with their lives because they dared to say that the Earth was not flat and it was not the center of the universe. So today, the question __________ itself to us in the 21st century is: "Are we committing the same mistake as our ancestors? Are we, also in making the mistake, or in our certainties, the ones who will fall apart over the next few years?" The next question which follows is: "What are those certainties which are of received and non-negotiable value, which could fall apart in 10, 15, 20, or 50 years?" There are a lot of them. As a former economist, there are at least three certainties in economy. At first, there is the _____ that growth is the only motor of the economy. Let me remind you what the word 'economy' means in Greek. Economy means resource management, domain and household management. So it doesn't necessarily mean growth. It's not a synonym. Second truth which could fall apart is that growth is infinite. That's our consumption model in a finite and ____________ shrinking world as the population grows more and more but with less resources. And we don't question this dogma. Third dogma, third received truth is the necessary sacrifice of the living in favor of this growth. But still, we have authorized the right to _______, to right to ______, the right to __________. Why? Because growth _______ it. The question that we are __________ with today is: If we continue like this, if we continue to _______ the ______, do we challenge this, will we authorize this dialogue? The answer is also not that evident because we can ask ourselves if the people who question these dogmas of ______ as motor of the economy, and of the myth of infinite growth are today maybe still seen like yesterday's heretics. I must say that I am not sure, that at this time, in the 21st century, we show a great wisdom to those who dare to question a system which we all benefit from. It should be extremely important for us to keep an open mind. And yet, we become more and more people. All here, I think, are convinced of the fact that we know that the road we have taken for two centuries leads us directly to - how did the philosopher Jonas say? To a ______ impasse. The economic development on which we base our model leads us to a tragic _______. Hans Jonas adds a very beautiful expression: "Nature will __________ make its ultimate veto, anyway, and it will be over." After what I just said, another question ______ I am concerned with personally: "What will our children and descendants think of our behavior, our stubbornness of our _________ of a ___________ economic _____?" It is very likely that they will call us perhaps __________ of the living world, and maybe they will feel the same contempt, the same indignation which we can feel today about those who developed slavery two or three centuries ago. Our behavior today is not any better than that of those we despise today. Why? Because three centuries ago, _______ was non-negotiable. The European and American economic model was _____ on slavery. And today, in 2013, what happens? Our entire economic model, our entire society is based on what? On exploitation, on the sacrifice of the living. The question, which, of course, arises is, "What are we going to do?" But before we know what we will do we have to know why we got there in order not to commit the same mistake in tomorrow's world. And how did we get there? The ______ is simple and can be said in a few words. The philosopher Descartes already said it four centuries ago: "Man is the only master and owner of nature." Period. We dominate nature, we shape and form it. We do what we want. But what has ________ since this Cartesian thought? We consider nature as a bottomless pit, as a mine where we draw from and throw things. And that's the problem. We consider this kind of nature as what? Finally, that puts man outside of nature. And this exteriority is our problem. In 1990, Michel ______ had an extremely truthful _______, like always, he said: "But finally, the notion of nature is a problem for us because nature assumes that man is put into, surrounded by a living world. We are disconnected from nature. As long as we haven't ______ that problem, as long as we haven't reconciled with nature, it won't work. It's not about sacralizing nature, or putting it on an altar like a sacred _______, it's just about including nature and not acting against or without it." Well, how are we going to do that? The conclusion of my talk is we'll have to organize it, really simple. It's extremely simple, we need a new controversy. What is a controversy? It's a dispute, a global ______. What happened in Valladolid in the 16th _______, in 1550? A dispute took place in Spain as to whether Native Americans are living beings or not. Because if we exploited this tame workforce for free, we would develop the New World. If they were human ______ we couldn't make them slaves. That would be intolerable. So, we discussed about the ________ of Native Americans. In the 21st century, we need to organize a new controversy. But this time it will be about determining where are the tolerance limits towards ______ compared to human activity. What can nature bear? What kind of economic model can it bear? Do we have the right to pollute, the right to destroy the future of our children and their common heritage? This new ___________ allows us to draft the Universal Declaration on the Duties of Man towards Nature. Yes, I said duties. Why? The Declaration on Human ______ has been the corner stone of the modern world, of today's world. The Universal ___________ on the Duties of Man will be the ___________ of the new tomorrow. The declaration will fix the limits of our activity. But how to launch this new controversy? It needs to be organized. But before organizing and launching it, you will tell me: "Roudaut has taken drugs. He's a _______. He lives in an ivory tower. it's all in his fantasy." Once more, I go back to history. Who would have thought before Constantin and Theodosius I that the Romans would see their empire _________ by a handful of people from inside ______ Christians? Who would have thought before the French Revolution and the end of the monarchy that a _______ of men would _____ the Universal Declaration on Human Rights? _____, those who reflect about another world, who strive for new values, are perhaps - perhaps you and I are - the first Christians of the _____ Empire. We may be about to change the things from inside through the only __________ of our values to another world. How to organize this new controversy? That's very ______ because of an _____________ _________, we have a new tool in our hands, and that's __________. We are all connected, and that will change everything. The fact that we are connected allows us to launch a controversy to consider the world of tomorrow. I ______ my talk with this connection, as from tonight on, I suggest to launch the first tweet about the new controversy. Here and now in Nantes, here we go, sent. I invite you to continue the debate without me, after or with me. Thank you. (Applause)

Solution

  1. utopian
  2. aspiration
  3. environmental
  4. declaration
  5. unprecedented
  6. beings
  7. extraordinary
  8. confronted
  9. goddess
  10. americans
  11. jared
  12. finance
  13. talking
  14. economical
  15. serres
  16. simple
  17. tomorrow
  18. years
  19. factors
  20. poison
  21. factor
  22. discovered
  23. handful
  24. barbarians
  25. climate
  26. write
  27. renaissance
  28. truth
  29. human
  30. stormy
  31. information
  32. galilee
  33. precise
  34. received
  35. extermination
  36. crisis
  37. model
  38. cornerstone
  39. shortage
  40. period
  41. impasse
  42. roman
  43. based
  44. children
  45. slavery
  46. today
  47. obsession
  48. humanity
  49. weakening
  50. civilization
  51. exceptional
  52. daily
  53. increasingly
  54. understanding
  55. turned
  56. weapons
  57. century
  58. sacrify
  59. solved
  60. arises
  61. thought
  62. answer
  63. destructive
  64. rights
  65. extremely
  66. imagine
  67. connection
  68. published
  69. called
  70. pollute
  71. destroyed
  72. debate
  73. controversy
  74. tragic
  75. nature
  76. accelerates
  77. historical
  78. finish
  79. slighty
  80. realized
  81. dared
  82. demands
  83. challenge
  84. happened
  85. conversations
  86. eventually
  87. economy
  88. intoxicate
  89. living
  90. finally
  91. presenting
  92. growth
  93. europe
  94. world
  95. hands
  96. changed
  97. collapse

Original Text

Indeed, for 20 years, I worked in finance. I knew everything about finance, for sure. I knew the global economy because it was my life. All the topics that you could bring up about ecology, the end of the world, etc., that I knew like the back of my hand I didn't really believe in them. In 2007, an extremely unusual event occurred, you may remember, the subprime crisis, the collapse of big American banks. It was an electric shock. I had a fair few stormy conversations with my wife about the matter, about my job, on the limits of the model. Besides the crisis, I realized that I was completely wrong, that we were heading for disaster. The whole conception I had of the world, all the certainties that I had until then, were all fallen apart within a few months. That's why I'm here tonight, I've realized that, finally, it wasn't all so bad, and that it was an opportunity because we have the exceptional opportunity of living in an exceptional period of human history: we are going to change the world. But before changing the world, we have to do something, we have to do some grieving, we have to turn the page - turning the page of the world we live in today. To do so, I need some help from an American who goes by the name of Jared Diamond and who published "Collapse," and soon you will see that the 5 factors of the collapse of civilizations are reunited today. Jared Diamond has identified 5 factors in which we find the collapse of the Mayas, the Vikings, and all of the great Mesopotamian civilizations. And every time, those 5 factors were reunited. The bad news is that the 5 factors are reunited only at the beginning of the 21st century, but this time not only a single civilization is threatened but the global village, humanity, all of us. It's extremely important to be aware of this. The first factor of the collapse is the environmental factor. For two centuries, especially the last 50 years, we have done environmental damage, sometimes irreversible. The second factor is climate change. All the great civilizations did face those changes in climate. This weakens the ecosystems, that weakening also results in shortage of resources, destabilization of a society economical, geopolitical, social consequences, you name it. Third factor, still reunited today, the revival of military conflicts. These two first factors result in: when the ecosystems are destabilized and there is a shortage of resources, we continue having conflicts, we make war. And let me remind you, at the moment France is at war in Mali; let's not forget that. Fourth factor, equally important than the last one, the cancellation of diplomatic and commercial alliances. Things look bad, and the alliances concluded yesterday are undermined. Today, we are all aware of the fact that the future of Europe is unknown, we don't know what will come. And the fifth factor, not the least worrisome: the blindness of our elites. In this whole collapse of the civilization, the elites are not able to evaluate the fall of their world. They are incapable of changing their prism for the analysis. And the result? The result is simple: we will have a political caste system which emphasizes, which accelerates the collapse of a world. After everything I just told you, you have to know that the end of a world is not the same as the end of the world. If I told you that we live in an extraordinary time, extraordinary in the sense of etymology, there is no doubt, we live in a transition period, between two worlds. In the world of today, we are about to turn the page. And the world of tomorrow, the world to come, the sustainable world, about which I am talking today, starts to slighty assume its shape but there is still nothing precise. How do we live? We live in a historical period inspiring enough that we have to reinvent things. The nearest time period, in which man reinvented everything, is the Renaissance. The question which comes up in the 21st century is, "Do we experience a new Renaissance?" Let's see if the factors of a renaissance are reunited. First factor of a renaissance is a new understanding of the world. In the 15th century, Columbus discovered the Americas, man discovered the immensity of planet Earth, we discovered the immensity of the world. What happens at the moment, for some decades, for some years? We discover the finiteness of the world. The planet is very small in terms of resources, capacity, if we look at the current economic model. New understanding. Second factor: The Renaissance is a period of very much creativity. We all know Leonardo da Vinci, the Flemish painters. 2012, 2013, what has happened? Very much creativity. 3D printing is only one example. There are lots of others. Third factor of the Renaissance: Contrary to common beliefs, the Renaissance was not only a period of creativity, but also of much violence: religious wars, civil wars, extermination of the Native Americans, slavery. And how is it in 2012, 2013? Violence on a daily basis, and children which get killed in school by automatic weapons. Fourth factor of a renaissance: The whole world knows Gutenberg the inventor of the printing press who fundamentally changed the distribution of knowledge in Europe, and later in the rest of the world. Imagine, today, there is a new technological tool which allows us to distribute knowledge in a whole new way. This tool, which we have in our hands, provides instantaneous information. We hold the knowledge of the world in our hands. Soon, we will see how this is going to change. And finally, a renaissance - that brings me to the subject of today - it's the fact that all the certainties of humanity have fallen apart. Let me remind you, from Aristoteles through Ptolemy in the 2nd century to the Renaissance, the Earth was flat, man was the center of the world, and the stars turned around us. And those who dared to question this unique thought, those who dared to dispute this received, non-negotiable truth, - you know what came next - had to deal with the Inquisition. At the stake, they had to answer the question. Copernicus and Galilee had nearly paid with their lives because they dared to say that the Earth was not flat and it was not the center of the universe. So today, the question presenting itself to us in the 21st century is: "Are we committing the same mistake as our ancestors? Are we, also in making the mistake, or in our certainties, the ones who will fall apart over the next few years?" The next question which follows is: "What are those certainties which are of received and non-negotiable value, which could fall apart in 10, 15, 20, or 50 years?" There are a lot of them. As a former economist, there are at least three certainties in economy. At first, there is the truth that growth is the only motor of the economy. Let me remind you what the word 'economy' means in Greek. Economy means resource management, domain and household management. So it doesn't necessarily mean growth. It's not a synonym. Second truth which could fall apart is that growth is infinite. That's our consumption model in a finite and increasingly shrinking world as the population grows more and more but with less resources. And we don't question this dogma. Third dogma, third received truth is the necessary sacrifice of the living in favor of this growth. But still, we have authorized the right to pollute, to right to poison, the right to intoxicate. Why? Because growth demands it. The question that we are confronted with today is: If we continue like this, if we continue to sacrify the living, do we challenge this, will we authorize this dialogue? The answer is also not that evident because we can ask ourselves if the people who question these dogmas of growth as motor of the economy, and of the myth of infinite growth are today maybe still seen like yesterday's heretics. I must say that I am not sure, that at this time, in the 21st century, we show a great wisdom to those who dare to question a system which we all benefit from. It should be extremely important for us to keep an open mind. And yet, we become more and more people. All here, I think, are convinced of the fact that we know that the road we have taken for two centuries leads us directly to - how did the philosopher Jonas say? To a tragic impasse. The economic development on which we base our model leads us to a tragic impasse. Hans Jonas adds a very beautiful expression: "Nature will eventually make its ultimate veto, anyway, and it will be over." After what I just said, another question arises I am concerned with personally: "What will our children and descendants think of our behavior, our stubbornness of our obsession of a destructive economic model?" It is very likely that they will call us perhaps barbarians of the living world, and maybe they will feel the same contempt, the same indignation which we can feel today about those who developed slavery two or three centuries ago. Our behavior today is not any better than that of those we despise today. Why? Because three centuries ago, slavery was non-negotiable. The European and American economic model was based on slavery. And today, in 2013, what happens? Our entire economic model, our entire society is based on what? On exploitation, on the sacrifice of the living. The question, which, of course, arises is, "What are we going to do?" But before we know what we will do we have to know why we got there in order not to commit the same mistake in tomorrow's world. And how did we get there? The answer is simple and can be said in a few words. The philosopher Descartes already said it four centuries ago: "Man is the only master and owner of nature." Period. We dominate nature, we shape and form it. We do what we want. But what has happened since this Cartesian thought? We consider nature as a bottomless pit, as a mine where we draw from and throw things. And that's the problem. We consider this kind of nature as what? Finally, that puts man outside of nature. And this exteriority is our problem. In 1990, Michel Serres had an extremely truthful thought, like always, he said: "But finally, the notion of nature is a problem for us because nature assumes that man is put into, surrounded by a living world. We are disconnected from nature. As long as we haven't solved that problem, as long as we haven't reconciled with nature, it won't work. It's not about sacralizing nature, or putting it on an altar like a sacred goddess, it's just about including nature and not acting against or without it." Well, how are we going to do that? The conclusion of my talk is we'll have to organize it, really simple. It's extremely simple, we need a new controversy. What is a controversy? It's a dispute, a global debate. What happened in Valladolid in the 16th century, in 1550? A dispute took place in Spain as to whether Native Americans are living beings or not. Because if we exploited this tame workforce for free, we would develop the New World. If they were human beings we couldn't make them slaves. That would be intolerable. So, we discussed about the humanity of Native Americans. In the 21st century, we need to organize a new controversy. But this time it will be about determining where are the tolerance limits towards nature compared to human activity. What can nature bear? What kind of economic model can it bear? Do we have the right to pollute, the right to destroy the future of our children and their common heritage? This new controversy allows us to draft the Universal Declaration on the Duties of Man towards Nature. Yes, I said duties. Why? The Declaration on Human Rights has been the corner stone of the modern world, of today's world. The Universal Declaration on the Duties of Man will be the cornerstone of the new tomorrow. The declaration will fix the limits of our activity. But how to launch this new controversy? It needs to be organized. But before organizing and launching it, you will tell me: "Roudaut has taken drugs. He's a utopian. He lives in an ivory tower. it's all in his fantasy." Once more, I go back to history. Who would have thought before Constantin and Theodosius I that the Romans would see their empire destroyed by a handful of people from inside called Christians? Who would have thought before the French Revolution and the end of the monarchy that a handful of men would write the Universal Declaration on Human Rights? Today, those who reflect about another world, who strive for new values, are perhaps - perhaps you and I are - the first Christians of the Roman Empire. We may be about to change the things from inside through the only aspiration of our values to another world. How to organize this new controversy? That's very simple because of an unprecedented challenge, we have a new tool in our hands, and that's connection. We are all connected, and that will change everything. The fact that we are connected allows us to launch a controversy to consider the world of tomorrow. I finish my talk with this connection, as from tonight on, I suggest to launch the first tweet about the new controversy. Here and now in Nantes, here we go, sent. I invite you to continue the debate without me, after or with me. Thank you. (Applause)

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
economic model 3
universal declaration 3
jared diamond 2
extremely important 2
tragic impasse 2
native americans 2

Important Words

  1. accelerates
  2. acting
  3. activity
  4. adds
  5. alliances
  6. altar
  7. american
  8. americans
  9. americas
  10. analysis
  11. ancestors
  12. answer
  13. applause
  14. arises
  15. aristoteles
  16. aspiration
  17. assume
  18. assumes
  19. authorize
  20. authorized
  21. automatic
  22. aware
  23. bad
  24. banks
  25. barbarians
  26. base
  27. based
  28. basis
  29. bear
  30. beautiful
  31. beginning
  32. behavior
  33. beings
  34. beliefs
  35. benefit
  36. big
  37. blindness
  38. bottomless
  39. bring
  40. brings
  41. call
  42. called
  43. cancellation
  44. capacity
  45. cartesian
  46. caste
  47. center
  48. centuries
  49. century
  50. certainties
  51. challenge
  52. change
  53. changed
  54. changing
  55. children
  56. christians
  57. civil
  58. civilization
  59. civilizations
  60. climate
  61. collapse
  62. columbus
  63. commercial
  64. commit
  65. committing
  66. common
  67. compared
  68. completely
  69. conception
  70. concerned
  71. concluded
  72. conclusion
  73. conflicts
  74. confronted
  75. connected
  76. connection
  77. consequences
  78. constantin
  79. consumption
  80. contempt
  81. continue
  82. contrary
  83. controversy
  84. conversations
  85. convinced
  86. copernicus
  87. corner
  88. cornerstone
  89. creativity
  90. crisis
  91. current
  92. da
  93. daily
  94. damage
  95. dared
  96. deal
  97. debate
  98. decades
  99. declaration
  100. demands
  101. descartes
  102. descendants
  103. despise
  104. destabilization
  105. destabilized
  106. destroy
  107. destroyed
  108. destructive
  109. determining
  110. develop
  111. developed
  112. development
  113. dialogue
  114. diamond
  115. diplomatic
  116. disaster
  117. disconnected
  118. discover
  119. discovered
  120. discussed
  121. dispute
  122. distribute
  123. distribution
  124. dogma
  125. dogmas
  126. domain
  127. dominate
  128. doubt
  129. draft
  130. draw
  131. drugs
  132. duties
  133. earth
  134. ecology
  135. economic
  136. economical
  137. economist
  138. economy
  139. ecosystems
  140. electric
  141. elites
  142. emphasizes
  143. empire
  144. entire
  145. environmental
  146. equally
  147. etymology
  148. europe
  149. european
  150. evaluate
  151. event
  152. eventually
  153. evident
  154. exceptional
  155. experience
  156. exploitation
  157. exploited
  158. exteriority
  159. extermination
  160. extraordinary
  161. extremely
  162. face
  163. fact
  164. factor
  165. factors
  166. fair
  167. fall
  168. fallen
  169. fantasy
  170. favor
  171. feel
  172. finally
  173. finance
  174. find
  175. finish
  176. finite
  177. finiteness
  178. fix
  179. flat
  180. flemish
  181. forget
  182. form
  183. fourth
  184. france
  185. free
  186. french
  187. fundamentally
  188. future
  189. galilee
  190. geopolitical
  191. global
  192. goddess
  193. great
  194. greek
  195. grieving
  196. grows
  197. growth
  198. gutenberg
  199. hand
  200. handful
  201. hands
  202. hans
  203. happened
  204. heading
  205. heretics
  206. heritage
  207. historical
  208. history
  209. hold
  210. household
  211. human
  212. humanity
  213. identified
  214. imagine
  215. immensity
  216. impasse
  217. important
  218. incapable
  219. including
  220. increasingly
  221. indignation
  222. infinite
  223. information
  224. inquisition
  225. inspiring
  226. instantaneous
  227. intolerable
  228. intoxicate
  229. inventor
  230. invite
  231. irreversible
  232. ivory
  233. jared
  234. job
  235. jonas
  236. killed
  237. kind
  238. knew
  239. knowledge
  240. launch
  241. launching
  242. leads
  243. leonardo
  244. life
  245. limits
  246. live
  247. lives
  248. living
  249. long
  250. lot
  251. lots
  252. making
  253. man
  254. management
  255. master
  256. matter
  257. mayas
  258. means
  259. men
  260. mesopotamian
  261. michel
  262. military
  263. mind
  264. mistake
  265. model
  266. modern
  267. moment
  268. monarchy
  269. months
  270. motor
  271. myth
  272. nantes
  273. native
  274. nature
  275. nearest
  276. necessarily
  277. news
  278. notion
  279. obsession
  280. occurred
  281. open
  282. opportunity
  283. order
  284. organize
  285. organized
  286. organizing
  287. owner
  288. page
  289. paid
  290. painters
  291. people
  292. period
  293. philosopher
  294. pit
  295. place
  296. planet
  297. poison
  298. political
  299. pollute
  300. population
  301. precise
  302. presenting
  303. press
  304. printing
  305. prism
  306. problem
  307. ptolemy
  308. published
  309. put
  310. puts
  311. putting
  312. question
  313. realized
  314. received
  315. reconciled
  316. reflect
  317. reinvent
  318. reinvented
  319. religious
  320. remember
  321. remind
  322. renaissance
  323. resource
  324. resources
  325. rest
  326. result
  327. results
  328. reunited
  329. revival
  330. revolution
  331. rights
  332. road
  333. roman
  334. romans
  335. sacralizing
  336. sacred
  337. sacrifice
  338. sacrify
  339. school
  340. sense
  341. serres
  342. shape
  343. shock
  344. shortage
  345. show
  346. shrinking
  347. simple
  348. single
  349. slavery
  350. slaves
  351. slighty
  352. small
  353. social
  354. society
  355. solved
  356. spain
  357. stake
  358. stars
  359. starts
  360. stone
  361. stormy
  362. strive
  363. stubbornness
  364. subject
  365. subprime
  366. suggest
  367. surrounded
  368. sustainable
  369. synonym
  370. system
  371. talk
  372. talking
  373. tame
  374. technological
  375. terms
  376. theodosius
  377. thought
  378. threatened
  379. throw
  380. time
  381. today
  382. told
  383. tolerance
  384. tomorrow
  385. tonight
  386. tool
  387. topics
  388. tower
  389. tragic
  390. transition
  391. truth
  392. truthful
  393. turn
  394. turned
  395. turning
  396. tweet
  397. ultimate
  398. undermined
  399. understanding
  400. unique
  401. universal
  402. universe
  403. unknown
  404. unprecedented
  405. unusual
  406. utopian
  407. valladolid
  408. values
  409. veto
  410. vikings
  411. village
  412. vinci
  413. violence
  414. war
  415. wars
  416. weakening
  417. weakens
  418. weapons
  419. wife
  420. wisdom
  421. word
  422. words
  423. work
  424. worked
  425. workforce
  426. world
  427. worlds
  428. write
  429. wrong
  430. years
  431. yesterday