full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Yaniv Erlich: How we're building the world's largest family tree

Unscramble the Blue Letters

We can move from qsonetius about demography and ask questions about human health. For example, we can ask to what extent gnieetc variations account for differences in life span between inddiiuavls. Previous studies analyzed the correlation of lvinotegy between twins to address this question. They estimated that the genetic votairains account for about a quarter of the differences in life span between individuals. But twins can be correlated due to so many rosanes, including various environmental effects or a shared household. Large family trees give us the ounrpiotpty to aalyzne both close relatives, such as twins, all the way to distant relatives, even fourth cousins. This way we can biuld rbosut models that can tease apart the contribution of genetic variations from environmental faoctrs. We conducted this analysis using our data, and we found that genetic variations explain only 15 percent of the differences in life span between individuals. That is five years, on average. So geens matter less than what we thought before to life span. And I find it great news, because it means that our actions can matter more. Smoking, for example, determines 10 years of our life expectancy — twice as much as what gcetines determines.

Open Cloze

We can move from _________ about demography and ask questions about human health. For example, we can ask to what extent _______ variations account for differences in life span between ___________. Previous studies analyzed the correlation of _________ between twins to address this question. They estimated that the genetic __________ account for about a quarter of the differences in life span between individuals. But twins can be correlated due to so many _______, including various environmental effects or a shared household. Large family trees give us the ___________ to _______ both close relatives, such as twins, all the way to distant relatives, even fourth cousins. This way we can _____ ______ models that can tease apart the contribution of genetic variations from environmental _______. We conducted this analysis using our data, and we found that genetic variations explain only 15 percent of the differences in life span between individuals. That is five years, on average. So _____ matter less than what we thought before to life span. And I find it great news, because it means that our actions can matter more. Smoking, for example, determines 10 years of our life expectancy — twice as much as what ________ determines.

Solution

  1. factors
  2. genetics
  3. longevity
  4. genetic
  5. genes
  6. robust
  7. opportunity
  8. questions
  9. analyze
  10. variations
  11. reasons
  12. build
  13. individuals

Original Text

We can move from questions about demography and ask questions about human health. For example, we can ask to what extent genetic variations account for differences in life span between individuals. Previous studies analyzed the correlation of longevity between twins to address this question. They estimated that the genetic variations account for about a quarter of the differences in life span between individuals. But twins can be correlated due to so many reasons, including various environmental effects or a shared household. Large family trees give us the opportunity to analyze both close relatives, such as twins, all the way to distant relatives, even fourth cousins. This way we can build robust models that can tease apart the contribution of genetic variations from environmental factors. We conducted this analysis using our data, and we found that genetic variations explain only 15 percent of the differences in life span between individuals. That is five years, on average. So genes matter less than what we thought before to life span. And I find it great news, because it means that our actions can matter more. Smoking, for example, determines 10 years of our life expectancy — twice as much as what genetics determines.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
uncle bernie 5
family trees 5
large family 5
genetic variations 4
life span 4
distant relatives 3
hard work 3
golden state 3
people typically 2
family history 2
fellow genealogists 2
genealogists document 2
family tree 2
error rate 2
previous studies 2
migration events 2
form families 2
variations account 2
state killer 2

ngrams of length 3

collocation frequency
large family trees 2
genetic variations account 2
golden state killer 2

Important Words

  1. account
  2. actions
  3. address
  4. analysis
  5. analyze
  6. analyzed
  7. average
  8. build
  9. close
  10. conducted
  11. contribution
  12. correlated
  13. correlation
  14. cousins
  15. data
  16. demography
  17. determines
  18. differences
  19. distant
  20. due
  21. effects
  22. environmental
  23. estimated
  24. expectancy
  25. explain
  26. extent
  27. factors
  28. family
  29. find
  30. fourth
  31. genes
  32. genetic
  33. genetics
  34. give
  35. great
  36. health
  37. household
  38. human
  39. including
  40. individuals
  41. large
  42. life
  43. longevity
  44. matter
  45. means
  46. models
  47. move
  48. news
  49. opportunity
  50. percent
  51. previous
  52. quarter
  53. question
  54. questions
  55. reasons
  56. relatives
  57. robust
  58. shared
  59. smoking
  60. span
  61. studies
  62. tease
  63. thought
  64. trees
  65. twins
  66. variations
  67. years