full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Sergiu P. Pasca: How we're reverse engineering the human brain in the lab

Unscramble the Blue Letters

I think the best way to explain, though, how we do this is through the eyes of one of my patients. When I opened my lab at Stanford, Eduard, who's on the autism surtpecm, sent me this drawing depicting how he thought we were studying brain disorders. Now to paraphrase him, he said, "What I think you're doing is you're clmiibng up a ladder, poking holes in people's brains and then use tiny telescopes to watch neural cells." Of course, that's not what we do. So I called him up, eeiplaxnd the process, and then the next morning he sent me another drawing, which I think ended up being a quite accurate representation of the work that we and many others now are doing. Again, to paraphrase him, he said, "You're taking skin clels from patients that have specific brain disorders, then doing some mumbo jmubo to the cells to push them back in time and turn them into stem cells." And then he knew that stem cells can be cxeoad to become any cell type. “So then you’re taking them and tnnriug them into brian cells that form brain circuits.”

Open Cloze

I think the best way to explain, though, how we do this is through the eyes of one of my patients. When I opened my lab at Stanford, Eduard, who's on the autism ________, sent me this drawing depicting how he thought we were studying brain disorders. Now to paraphrase him, he said, "What I think you're doing is you're ________ up a ladder, poking holes in people's brains and then use tiny telescopes to watch neural cells." Of course, that's not what we do. So I called him up, _________ the process, and then the next morning he sent me another drawing, which I think ended up being a quite accurate representation of the work that we and many others now are doing. Again, to paraphrase him, he said, "You're taking skin _____ from patients that have specific brain disorders, then doing some mumbo _____ to the cells to push them back in time and turn them into stem cells." And then he knew that stem cells can be ______ to become any cell type. “So then you’re taking them and _______ them into _____ cells that form brain circuits.”

Solution

  1. climbing
  2. brain
  3. turning
  4. spectrum
  5. explained
  6. jumbo
  7. cells
  8. coaxed

Original Text

I think the best way to explain, though, how we do this is through the eyes of one of my patients. When I opened my lab at Stanford, Eduard, who's on the autism spectrum, sent me this drawing depicting how he thought we were studying brain disorders. Now to paraphrase him, he said, "What I think you're doing is you're climbing up a ladder, poking holes in people's brains and then use tiny telescopes to watch neural cells." Of course, that's not what we do. So I called him up, explained the process, and then the next morning he sent me another drawing, which I think ended up being a quite accurate representation of the work that we and many others now are doing. Again, to paraphrase him, he said, "You're taking skin cells from patients that have specific brain disorders, then doing some mumbo jumbo to the cells to push them back in time and turn them into stem cells." And then he knew that stem cells can be coaxed to become any cell type. “So then you’re taking them and turning them into brain cells that form brain circuits.”

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
human brain 17
cell type 6
stem cells 5
brain organoids 4
brain cells 4
skin cells 3
outer layer 2
human circuits 2
brain disorders 2
specific brain 2
build human 2
brain circuits 2
chemical soup 2
brain organoid 2
nervous system 2
brain clock 2
side started 2
jumping behavior 2
molecular mechanism 2

Important Words

  1. accurate
  2. autism
  3. brain
  4. brains
  5. called
  6. cell
  7. cells
  8. circuits
  9. climbing
  10. coaxed
  11. depicting
  12. disorders
  13. drawing
  14. eduard
  15. ended
  16. explain
  17. explained
  18. eyes
  19. form
  20. holes
  21. jumbo
  22. knew
  23. lab
  24. ladder
  25. morning
  26. mumbo
  27. neural
  28. opened
  29. paraphrase
  30. patients
  31. poking
  32. process
  33. push
  34. representation
  35. skin
  36. specific
  37. spectrum
  38. stanford
  39. stem
  40. studying
  41. telescopes
  42. thought
  43. time
  44. tiny
  45. turn
  46. turning
  47. type
  48. watch
  49. work