full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Joy Lin: If superpowers were real Body mass

Unscramble the Blue Letters

Some superheroes can grow to the size of a building at will. That's very intimidating! But a sicsntiet must ask where the extra material is coming from. The Law of Conservation of Mass implies that mass can neither be created nor destroyed, which means that our hero's mass will not change just because his size changes. For instance, when we bake a fluffy sponge cake, even though the resulting delicious treat is much bigger in size than the cake batter that went into the oven, the weight of the cake btater should still eqaul the weight of the cake plus the moisture that has evaporated. In a chemical equation, molecules rearrange to make new compounds, but all the components should still be accounted for. When our hero expands from 6 feet tall to 18 feet tall, his height triples. Galileo's Square Cube Law says his weight will be 27 - 3 times 3 times 3 equals 27 - times his regular wgehit since he has to epaxnd in all three dimensions. So, when our superhero transforms into a giant, we are dleiang with two pitisilibsoes. Our hero tnweirog at 18 feet still only weighs 200 pounds, the oiraignl weight in this human form. Now, option two, our hero weighs 5,400 pounds - 200 pounds times 27 equals 5,400 pounds - when he is 18 feet tall, which means he also wihges 5,400 pounds when he is 6 feet tall. Nobody can get in the same elevator with him without the alarm going off. Now, option two seems a little more scientifically plublsiae, but it begs the question, how does he ever walk through the park without sinking into the gnurod since the pressure he is enxetrig on the soil is calculated by his mass divided by the area of the bottom of his feet? And what kind of super socks and super shoes is he putting on his feet to withstand all the friction that results from dragging his 5,400 pound body against the road when he runs? And can he even run? And I won't even ask how he finds pants felixble enough to withstand the expansion. Now, let's explore the density of the two options mentioned above. Density is defined as mass divided by volume. The haumn body is made out of bones and flesh, which has a relatively set density. In option one, if the hero weighs 200 pounds all the time, then he would be bones and flesh at normal size. When he expands to a bigger size while still weighing 200 pounds, he essentially turns himself into a giant, fluffy tdedy bear. In option two, if the hero weighs 5,400 pounds all the time, then he would be bones and flesh at 18 feet with 5,400 pounds of weight supported by two legs. The weight would be exerted on the leg bones at different angles as he moves. Bones, while hard, are not mebalalle, meianng they do not bend, so they baerk easily. The tendons would also be at risk of tearing. Tall buildings stay standing because they have steel frames and do not run and jump around in the jungle. Our hero, on the other hand, one landing at a bad angle and he's down. Assuming his bliody function is the same as any mammal's, his heart would need to pump a large anmuot of boold throughout his body to provide enough oxygen for him to move 5,400 pnuods of body weight around. This would take tremendous energy, which he would need to provide by consuming 27 tiems 3,000 calories of food every day. Now, that is ruolghy 150 Big Macs. 27 times 3,000 calculated euqlas 81,000 calculated slash 550 coeailrs equals 147. He wouldn't have time to fight crime because he would be eating all the time and woinkrg a 9-to-5 job in order to afford all the food he eats. And what about shoperurees who can turn their bodies into rocks or sand? Well, everything on Earth is made out of elements. And what diefnes each enleemt is the nmuebr of protons in the nucleus. That is how our periodic table is organized. Hydrogen has one proton, helium, two protons, lithium, three poonrts, and so on. The primary component of the most common form of sand is silicon dioxide. Meanwhile, the human body coinstss of 65% oxegyn, 18% carbon, 10% hydrogen, and 7% of various other elements including 0.002% of silicon. In a chemical rcoitean, the elements recombine to make new compounds. So, where is he getting all this soiclin necessary to make the sand? Sure, we can alter emeetnls by nuclear fusion or nuclear fission. However, nelaucr foisun requires so much heat, the only natural occurrence of this process is in sarts. In oredr to utilize fusion in a sohrt amount of time, the temperature of the area needs to be hotter than the Sun. Every innocent bystander will be burned to a crisp. riapd nuclear fission is not any better since it often results in many radioactive patecilrs. Our hero would become a wialnkg, tiknlag nuclear power plant, ualieltmty harming every person he tries to save. And do you really want the heat of the Sun or a radioactive nuclear pnalt inside of your body? Now, which superpower physics lesson will you explore next? Shifting body size and ctnnoet, super seepd, flight, super strength, immortality, and invisibility.

Open Cloze

Some superheroes can grow to the size of a building at will. That's very intimidating! But a _________ must ask where the extra material is coming from. The Law of Conservation of Mass implies that mass can neither be created nor destroyed, which means that our hero's mass will not change just because his size changes. For instance, when we bake a fluffy sponge cake, even though the resulting delicious treat is much bigger in size than the cake batter that went into the oven, the weight of the cake ______ should still _____ the weight of the cake plus the moisture that has evaporated. In a chemical equation, molecules rearrange to make new compounds, but all the components should still be accounted for. When our hero expands from 6 feet tall to 18 feet tall, his height triples. Galileo's Square Cube Law says his weight will be 27 - 3 times 3 times 3 equals 27 - times his regular ______ since he has to ______ in all three dimensions. So, when our superhero transforms into a giant, we are _______ with two _____________. Our hero ________ at 18 feet still only weighs 200 pounds, the ________ weight in this human form. Now, option two, our hero weighs 5,400 pounds - 200 pounds times 27 equals 5,400 pounds - when he is 18 feet tall, which means he also ______ 5,400 pounds when he is 6 feet tall. Nobody can get in the same elevator with him without the alarm going off. Now, option two seems a little more scientifically _________, but it begs the question, how does he ever walk through the park without sinking into the ______ since the pressure he is ________ on the soil is calculated by his mass divided by the area of the bottom of his feet? And what kind of super socks and super shoes is he putting on his feet to withstand all the friction that results from dragging his 5,400 pound body against the road when he runs? And can he even run? And I won't even ask how he finds pants ________ enough to withstand the expansion. Now, let's explore the density of the two options mentioned above. Density is defined as mass divided by volume. The _____ body is made out of bones and flesh, which has a relatively set density. In option one, if the hero weighs 200 pounds all the time, then he would be bones and flesh at normal size. When he expands to a bigger size while still weighing 200 pounds, he essentially turns himself into a giant, fluffy _____ bear. In option two, if the hero weighs 5,400 pounds all the time, then he would be bones and flesh at 18 feet with 5,400 pounds of weight supported by two legs. The weight would be exerted on the leg bones at different angles as he moves. Bones, while hard, are not _________, _______ they do not bend, so they _____ easily. The tendons would also be at risk of tearing. Tall buildings stay standing because they have steel frames and do not run and jump around in the jungle. Our hero, on the other hand, one landing at a bad angle and he's down. Assuming his ______ function is the same as any mammal's, his heart would need to pump a large ______ of _____ throughout his body to provide enough oxygen for him to move 5,400 ______ of body weight around. This would take tremendous energy, which he would need to provide by consuming 27 _____ 3,000 calories of food every day. Now, that is _______ 150 Big Macs. 27 times 3,000 calculated ______ 81,000 calculated slash 550 ________ equals 147. He wouldn't have time to fight crime because he would be eating all the time and _______ a 9-to-5 job in order to afford all the food he eats. And what about ___________ who can turn their bodies into rocks or sand? Well, everything on Earth is made out of elements. And what _______ each _______ is the ______ of protons in the nucleus. That is how our periodic table is organized. Hydrogen has one proton, helium, two protons, lithium, three _______, and so on. The primary component of the most common form of sand is silicon dioxide. Meanwhile, the human body ________ of 65% ______, 18% carbon, 10% hydrogen, and 7% of various other elements including 0.002% of silicon. In a chemical ________, the elements recombine to make new compounds. So, where is he getting all this _______ necessary to make the sand? Sure, we can alter ________ by nuclear fusion or nuclear fission. However, _______ ______ requires so much heat, the only natural occurrence of this process is in _____. In _____ to utilize fusion in a _____ amount of time, the temperature of the area needs to be hotter than the Sun. Every innocent bystander will be burned to a crisp. _____ nuclear fission is not any better since it often results in many radioactive _________. Our hero would become a _______, _______ nuclear power plant, __________ harming every person he tries to save. And do you really want the heat of the Sun or a radioactive nuclear _____ inside of your body? Now, which superpower physics lesson will you explore next? Shifting body size and _______, super _____, flight, super strength, immortality, and invisibility.

Solution

  1. protons
  2. equals
  3. consists
  4. working
  5. bodily
  6. ultimately
  7. roughly
  8. dealing
  9. original
  10. walking
  11. plant
  12. reaction
  13. nuclear
  14. particles
  15. stars
  16. rapid
  17. oxygen
  18. towering
  19. break
  20. talking
  21. weighs
  22. number
  23. scientist
  24. equal
  25. teddy
  26. human
  27. calories
  28. fusion
  29. possibilities
  30. speed
  31. silicon
  32. elements
  33. exerting
  34. short
  35. ground
  36. superheroes
  37. element
  38. times
  39. order
  40. content
  41. amount
  42. flexible
  43. plausible
  44. pounds
  45. malleable
  46. blood
  47. expand
  48. defines
  49. meaning
  50. batter
  51. weight

Original Text

Some superheroes can grow to the size of a building at will. That's very intimidating! But a scientist must ask where the extra material is coming from. The Law of Conservation of Mass implies that mass can neither be created nor destroyed, which means that our hero's mass will not change just because his size changes. For instance, when we bake a fluffy sponge cake, even though the resulting delicious treat is much bigger in size than the cake batter that went into the oven, the weight of the cake batter should still equal the weight of the cake plus the moisture that has evaporated. In a chemical equation, molecules rearrange to make new compounds, but all the components should still be accounted for. When our hero expands from 6 feet tall to 18 feet tall, his height triples. Galileo's Square Cube Law says his weight will be 27 - 3 times 3 times 3 equals 27 - times his regular weight since he has to expand in all three dimensions. So, when our superhero transforms into a giant, we are dealing with two possibilities. Our hero towering at 18 feet still only weighs 200 pounds, the original weight in this human form. Now, option two, our hero weighs 5,400 pounds - 200 pounds times 27 equals 5,400 pounds - when he is 18 feet tall, which means he also weighs 5,400 pounds when he is 6 feet tall. Nobody can get in the same elevator with him without the alarm going off. Now, option two seems a little more scientifically plausible, but it begs the question, how does he ever walk through the park without sinking into the ground since the pressure he is exerting on the soil is calculated by his mass divided by the area of the bottom of his feet? And what kind of super socks and super shoes is he putting on his feet to withstand all the friction that results from dragging his 5,400 pound body against the road when he runs? And can he even run? And I won't even ask how he finds pants flexible enough to withstand the expansion. Now, let's explore the density of the two options mentioned above. Density is defined as mass divided by volume. The human body is made out of bones and flesh, which has a relatively set density. In option one, if the hero weighs 200 pounds all the time, then he would be bones and flesh at normal size. When he expands to a bigger size while still weighing 200 pounds, he essentially turns himself into a giant, fluffy teddy bear. In option two, if the hero weighs 5,400 pounds all the time, then he would be bones and flesh at 18 feet with 5,400 pounds of weight supported by two legs. The weight would be exerted on the leg bones at different angles as he moves. Bones, while hard, are not malleable, meaning they do not bend, so they break easily. The tendons would also be at risk of tearing. Tall buildings stay standing because they have steel frames and do not run and jump around in the jungle. Our hero, on the other hand, one landing at a bad angle and he's down. Assuming his bodily function is the same as any mammal's, his heart would need to pump a large amount of blood throughout his body to provide enough oxygen for him to move 5,400 pounds of body weight around. This would take tremendous energy, which he would need to provide by consuming 27 times 3,000 calories of food every day. Now, that is roughly 150 Big Macs. 27 times 3,000 calculated equals 81,000 calculated slash 550 calories equals 147. He wouldn't have time to fight crime because he would be eating all the time and working a 9-to-5 job in order to afford all the food he eats. And what about superheroes who can turn their bodies into rocks or sand? Well, everything on Earth is made out of elements. And what defines each element is the number of protons in the nucleus. That is how our periodic table is organized. Hydrogen has one proton, helium, two protons, lithium, three protons, and so on. The primary component of the most common form of sand is silicon dioxide. Meanwhile, the human body consists of 65% oxygen, 18% carbon, 10% hydrogen, and 7% of various other elements including 0.002% of silicon. In a chemical reaction, the elements recombine to make new compounds. So, where is he getting all this silicon necessary to make the sand? Sure, we can alter elements by nuclear fusion or nuclear fission. However, nuclear fusion requires so much heat, the only natural occurrence of this process is in stars. In order to utilize fusion in a short amount of time, the temperature of the area needs to be hotter than the Sun. Every innocent bystander will be burned to a crisp. Rapid nuclear fission is not any better since it often results in many radioactive particles. Our hero would become a walking, talking nuclear power plant, ultimately harming every person he tries to save. And do you really want the heat of the Sun or a radioactive nuclear plant inside of your body? Now, which superpower physics lesson will you explore next? Shifting body size and content, super speed, flight, super strength, immortality, and invisibility.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
hero weighs 3
cake batter 2
feet tall 2
mass divided 2
human body 2
nuclear fusion 2
nuclear fission 2

Important Words

  1. accounted
  2. afford
  3. alarm
  4. alter
  5. amount
  6. angle
  7. angles
  8. area
  9. assuming
  10. bad
  11. bake
  12. batter
  13. bear
  14. begs
  15. bend
  16. big
  17. bigger
  18. blood
  19. bodies
  20. bodily
  21. body
  22. bones
  23. bottom
  24. break
  25. building
  26. buildings
  27. burned
  28. bystander
  29. cake
  30. calculated
  31. calories
  32. carbon
  33. change
  34. chemical
  35. coming
  36. common
  37. component
  38. components
  39. compounds
  40. conservation
  41. consists
  42. consuming
  43. content
  44. created
  45. crime
  46. crisp
  47. cube
  48. day
  49. dealing
  50. defined
  51. defines
  52. delicious
  53. density
  54. destroyed
  55. dimensions
  56. dioxide
  57. divided
  58. dragging
  59. earth
  60. easily
  61. eating
  62. eats
  63. element
  64. elements
  65. elevator
  66. energy
  67. equal
  68. equals
  69. equation
  70. essentially
  71. evaporated
  72. exerted
  73. exerting
  74. expand
  75. expands
  76. expansion
  77. explore
  78. extra
  79. feet
  80. fight
  81. finds
  82. fission
  83. flesh
  84. flexible
  85. flight
  86. fluffy
  87. food
  88. form
  89. frames
  90. friction
  91. function
  92. fusion
  93. giant
  94. ground
  95. grow
  96. hand
  97. hard
  98. harming
  99. heart
  100. heat
  101. height
  102. helium
  103. hero
  104. hotter
  105. human
  106. hydrogen
  107. immortality
  108. implies
  109. including
  110. innocent
  111. instance
  112. invisibility
  113. job
  114. jump
  115. jungle
  116. kind
  117. landing
  118. large
  119. law
  120. leg
  121. legs
  122. lesson
  123. lithium
  124. macs
  125. malleable
  126. mass
  127. material
  128. meaning
  129. means
  130. mentioned
  131. moisture
  132. molecules
  133. move
  134. moves
  135. natural
  136. normal
  137. nuclear
  138. nucleus
  139. number
  140. occurrence
  141. option
  142. options
  143. order
  144. organized
  145. original
  146. oven
  147. oxygen
  148. pants
  149. park
  150. particles
  151. periodic
  152. person
  153. physics
  154. plant
  155. plausible
  156. possibilities
  157. pound
  158. pounds
  159. power
  160. pressure
  161. primary
  162. process
  163. proton
  164. protons
  165. provide
  166. pump
  167. putting
  168. question
  169. radioactive
  170. rapid
  171. reaction
  172. rearrange
  173. recombine
  174. regular
  175. requires
  176. resulting
  177. results
  178. risk
  179. road
  180. rocks
  181. roughly
  182. run
  183. runs
  184. sand
  185. save
  186. scientifically
  187. scientist
  188. set
  189. shifting
  190. shoes
  191. short
  192. silicon
  193. sinking
  194. size
  195. slash
  196. socks
  197. soil
  198. speed
  199. sponge
  200. square
  201. standing
  202. stars
  203. stay
  204. steel
  205. strength
  206. sun
  207. super
  208. superhero
  209. superheroes
  210. superpower
  211. supported
  212. table
  213. talking
  214. tall
  215. tearing
  216. teddy
  217. temperature
  218. tendons
  219. time
  220. times
  221. towering
  222. transforms
  223. treat
  224. tremendous
  225. triples
  226. turn
  227. turns
  228. ultimately
  229. utilize
  230. volume
  231. walk
  232. walking
  233. weighing
  234. weighs
  235. weight
  236. withstand
  237. working