full transcript

## Unscramble the Blue Letters

Some superheroes can grow to the size of a building at will. That's very intimidating! But a sicsntiet must ask where the extra material is coming from. The Law of Conservation of Mass implies that mass can neither be created nor destroyed, which means that our hero's mass will not change just because his size changes. For instance, when we bake a fluffy sponge cake, even though the resulting delicious treat is much bigger in size than the cake batter that went into the oven, the weight of the cake btater should still eqaul the weight of the cake plus the moisture that has evaporated. In a chemical equation, molecules rearrange to make new compounds, but all the components should still be accounted for. When our hero expands from 6 feet tall to 18 feet tall, his height triples. Galileo's Square Cube Law says his weight will be 27 - 3 times 3 times 3 equals 27 - times his regular wgehit since he has to epaxnd in all three dimensions. So, when our superhero transforms into a giant, we are dleiang with two pitisilibsoes. Our hero tnweirog at 18 feet still only weighs 200 pounds, the oiraignl weight in this human form. Now, option two, our hero weighs 5,400 pounds - 200 pounds times 27 equals 5,400 pounds - when he is 18 feet tall, which means he also wihges 5,400 pounds when he is 6 feet tall. Nobody can get in the same elevator with him without the alarm going off. Now, option two seems a little more scientifically plublsiae, but it begs the question, how does he ever walk through the park without sinking into the gnurod since the pressure he is enxetrig on the soil is calculated by his mass divided by the area of the bottom of his feet? And what kind of super socks and super shoes is he putting on his feet to withstand all the friction that results from dragging his 5,400 pound body against the road when he runs? And can he even run? And I won't even ask how he finds pants felixble enough to withstand the expansion. Now, let's explore the density of the two options mentioned above. Density is defined as mass divided by volume. The haumn body is made out of bones and flesh, which has a relatively set density. In option one, if the hero weighs 200 pounds all the time, then he would be bones and flesh at normal size. When he expands to a bigger size while still weighing 200 pounds, he essentially turns himself into a giant, fluffy tdedy bear. In option two, if the hero weighs 5,400 pounds all the time, then he would be bones and flesh at 18 feet with 5,400 pounds of weight supported by two legs. The weight would be exerted on the leg bones at different angles as he moves. Bones, while hard, are not mebalalle, meianng they do not bend, so they baerk easily. The tendons would also be at risk of tearing. Tall buildings stay standing because they have steel frames and do not run and jump around in the jungle. Our hero, on the other hand, one landing at a bad angle and he's down. Assuming his bliody function is the same as any mammal's, his heart would need to pump a large anmuot of boold throughout his body to provide enough oxygen for him to move 5,400 pnuods of body weight around. This would take tremendous energy, which he would need to provide by consuming 27 tiems 3,000 calories of food every day. Now, that is ruolghy 150 Big Macs. 27 times 3,000 calculated euqlas 81,000 calculated slash 550 coeailrs equals 147. He wouldn't have time to fight crime because he would be eating all the time and woinkrg a 9-to-5 job in order to afford all the food he eats. And what about shoperurees who can turn their bodies into rocks or sand? Well, everything on Earth is made out of elements. And what diefnes each enleemt is the nmuebr of protons in the nucleus. That is how our periodic table is organized. Hydrogen has one proton, helium, two protons, lithium, three poonrts, and so on. The primary component of the most common form of sand is silicon dioxide. Meanwhile, the human body coinstss of 65% oxegyn, 18% carbon, 10% hydrogen, and 7% of various other elements including 0.002% of silicon. In a chemical rcoitean, the elements recombine to make new compounds. So, where is he getting all this soiclin necessary to make the sand? Sure, we can alter emeetnls by nuclear fusion or nuclear fission. However, nelaucr foisun requires so much heat, the only natural occurrence of this process is in sarts. In oredr to utilize fusion in a sohrt amount of time, the temperature of the area needs to be hotter than the Sun. Every innocent bystander will be burned to a crisp. riapd nuclear fission is not any better since it often results in many radioactive patecilrs. Our hero would become a wialnkg, tiknlag nuclear power plant, ualieltmty harming every person he tries to save. And do you really want the heat of the Sun or a radioactive nuclear pnalt inside of your body? Now, which superpower physics lesson will you explore next? Shifting body size and ctnnoet, super seepd, flight, super strength, immortality, and invisibility.

## Open Cloze

Some superheroes can grow to the size of a building at will. That's very intimidating! But a _________ must ask where the extra material is coming from. The Law of Conservation of Mass implies that mass can neither be created nor destroyed, which means that our hero's mass will not change just because his size changes. For instance, when we bake a fluffy sponge cake, even though the resulting delicious treat is much bigger in size than the cake batter that went into the oven, the weight of the cake ______ should still _____ the weight of the cake plus the moisture that has evaporated. In a chemical equation, molecules rearrange to make new compounds, but all the components should still be accounted for. When our hero expands from 6 feet tall to 18 feet tall, his height triples. Galileo's Square Cube Law says his weight will be 27 - 3 times 3 times 3 equals 27 - times his regular ______ since he has to ______ in all three dimensions. So, when our superhero transforms into a giant, we are _______ with two _____________. Our hero ________ at 18 feet still only weighs 200 pounds, the ________ weight in this human form. Now, option two, our hero weighs 5,400 pounds - 200 pounds times 27 equals 5,400 pounds - when he is 18 feet tall, which means he also ______ 5,400 pounds when he is 6 feet tall. Nobody can get in the same elevator with him without the alarm going off. Now, option two seems a little more scientifically _________, but it begs the question, how does he ever walk through the park without sinking into the ______ since the pressure he is ________ on the soil is calculated by his mass divided by the area of the bottom of his feet? And what kind of super socks and super shoes is he putting on his feet to withstand all the friction that results from dragging his 5,400 pound body against the road when he runs? And can he even run? And I won't even ask how he finds pants ________ enough to withstand the expansion. Now, let's explore the density of the two options mentioned above. Density is defined as mass divided by volume. The _____ body is made out of bones and flesh, which has a relatively set density. In option one, if the hero weighs 200 pounds all the time, then he would be bones and flesh at normal size. When he expands to a bigger size while still weighing 200 pounds, he essentially turns himself into a giant, fluffy _____ bear. In option two, if the hero weighs 5,400 pounds all the time, then he would be bones and flesh at 18 feet with 5,400 pounds of weight supported by two legs. The weight would be exerted on the leg bones at different angles as he moves. Bones, while hard, are not _________, _______ they do not bend, so they _____ easily. The tendons would also be at risk of tearing. Tall buildings stay standing because they have steel frames and do not run and jump around in the jungle. Our hero, on the other hand, one landing at a bad angle and he's down. Assuming his ______ function is the same as any mammal's, his heart would need to pump a large ______ of _____ throughout his body to provide enough oxygen for him to move 5,400 ______ of body weight around. This would take tremendous energy, which he would need to provide by consuming 27 _____ 3,000 calories of food every day. Now, that is _______ 150 Big Macs. 27 times 3,000 calculated ______ 81,000 calculated slash 550 ________ equals 147. He wouldn't have time to fight crime because he would be eating all the time and _______ a 9-to-5 job in order to afford all the food he eats. And what about ___________ who can turn their bodies into rocks or sand? Well, everything on Earth is made out of elements. And what _______ each _______ is the ______ of protons in the nucleus. That is how our periodic table is organized. Hydrogen has one proton, helium, two protons, lithium, three _______, and so on. The primary component of the most common form of sand is silicon dioxide. Meanwhile, the human body ________ of 65% ______, 18% carbon, 10% hydrogen, and 7% of various other elements including 0.002% of silicon. In a chemical ________, the elements recombine to make new compounds. So, where is he getting all this _______ necessary to make the sand? Sure, we can alter ________ by nuclear fusion or nuclear fission. However, _______ ______ requires so much heat, the only natural occurrence of this process is in _____. In _____ to utilize fusion in a _____ amount of time, the temperature of the area needs to be hotter than the Sun. Every innocent bystander will be burned to a crisp. _____ nuclear fission is not any better since it often results in many radioactive _________. Our hero would become a _______, _______ nuclear power plant, __________ harming every person he tries to save. And do you really want the heat of the Sun or a radioactive nuclear _____ inside of your body? Now, which superpower physics lesson will you explore next? Shifting body size and _______, super _____, flight, super strength, immortality, and invisibility.

## Solution

1. protons
2. equals
3. consists
4. working
5. bodily
6. ultimately
7. roughly
8. dealing
9. original
10. walking
11. plant
12. reaction
13. nuclear
14. particles
15. stars
16. rapid
17. oxygen
18. towering
19. break
20. talking
21. weighs
22. number
23. scientist
24. equal
25. teddy
26. human
27. calories
28. fusion
29. possibilities
30. speed
31. silicon
32. elements
33. exerting
34. short
35. ground
36. superheroes
37. element
38. times
39. order
40. content
41. amount
42. flexible
43. plausible
44. pounds
45. malleable
46. blood
47. expand
48. defines
49. meaning
50. batter
51. weight

## Original Text

Some superheroes can grow to the size of a building at will. That's very intimidating! But a scientist must ask where the extra material is coming from. The Law of Conservation of Mass implies that mass can neither be created nor destroyed, which means that our hero's mass will not change just because his size changes. For instance, when we bake a fluffy sponge cake, even though the resulting delicious treat is much bigger in size than the cake batter that went into the oven, the weight of the cake batter should still equal the weight of the cake plus the moisture that has evaporated. In a chemical equation, molecules rearrange to make new compounds, but all the components should still be accounted for. When our hero expands from 6 feet tall to 18 feet tall, his height triples. Galileo's Square Cube Law says his weight will be 27 - 3 times 3 times 3 equals 27 - times his regular weight since he has to expand in all three dimensions. So, when our superhero transforms into a giant, we are dealing with two possibilities. Our hero towering at 18 feet still only weighs 200 pounds, the original weight in this human form. Now, option two, our hero weighs 5,400 pounds - 200 pounds times 27 equals 5,400 pounds - when he is 18 feet tall, which means he also weighs 5,400 pounds when he is 6 feet tall. Nobody can get in the same elevator with him without the alarm going off. Now, option two seems a little more scientifically plausible, but it begs the question, how does he ever walk through the park without sinking into the ground since the pressure he is exerting on the soil is calculated by his mass divided by the area of the bottom of his feet? And what kind of super socks and super shoes is he putting on his feet to withstand all the friction that results from dragging his 5,400 pound body against the road when he runs? And can he even run? And I won't even ask how he finds pants flexible enough to withstand the expansion. Now, let's explore the density of the two options mentioned above. Density is defined as mass divided by volume. The human body is made out of bones and flesh, which has a relatively set density. In option one, if the hero weighs 200 pounds all the time, then he would be bones and flesh at normal size. When he expands to a bigger size while still weighing 200 pounds, he essentially turns himself into a giant, fluffy teddy bear. In option two, if the hero weighs 5,400 pounds all the time, then he would be bones and flesh at 18 feet with 5,400 pounds of weight supported by two legs. The weight would be exerted on the leg bones at different angles as he moves. Bones, while hard, are not malleable, meaning they do not bend, so they break easily. The tendons would also be at risk of tearing. Tall buildings stay standing because they have steel frames and do not run and jump around in the jungle. Our hero, on the other hand, one landing at a bad angle and he's down. Assuming his bodily function is the same as any mammal's, his heart would need to pump a large amount of blood throughout his body to provide enough oxygen for him to move 5,400 pounds of body weight around. This would take tremendous energy, which he would need to provide by consuming 27 times 3,000 calories of food every day. Now, that is roughly 150 Big Macs. 27 times 3,000 calculated equals 81,000 calculated slash 550 calories equals 147. He wouldn't have time to fight crime because he would be eating all the time and working a 9-to-5 job in order to afford all the food he eats. And what about superheroes who can turn their bodies into rocks or sand? Well, everything on Earth is made out of elements. And what defines each element is the number of protons in the nucleus. That is how our periodic table is organized. Hydrogen has one proton, helium, two protons, lithium, three protons, and so on. The primary component of the most common form of sand is silicon dioxide. Meanwhile, the human body consists of 65% oxygen, 18% carbon, 10% hydrogen, and 7% of various other elements including 0.002% of silicon. In a chemical reaction, the elements recombine to make new compounds. So, where is he getting all this silicon necessary to make the sand? Sure, we can alter elements by nuclear fusion or nuclear fission. However, nuclear fusion requires so much heat, the only natural occurrence of this process is in stars. In order to utilize fusion in a short amount of time, the temperature of the area needs to be hotter than the Sun. Every innocent bystander will be burned to a crisp. Rapid nuclear fission is not any better since it often results in many radioactive particles. Our hero would become a walking, talking nuclear power plant, ultimately harming every person he tries to save. And do you really want the heat of the Sun or a radioactive nuclear plant inside of your body? Now, which superpower physics lesson will you explore next? Shifting body size and content, super speed, flight, super strength, immortality, and invisibility.

## Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

### ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
hero weighs 3
cake batter 2
feet tall 2
mass divided 2
human body 2
nuclear fusion 2
nuclear fission 2

## Important Words

1. accounted
2. afford
3. alarm
4. alter
5. amount
6. angle
7. angles
8. area
9. assuming
11. bake
12. batter
13. bear
14. begs
15. bend
16. big
17. bigger
18. blood
19. bodies
20. bodily
21. body
22. bones
23. bottom
24. break
25. building
26. buildings
27. burned
28. bystander
29. cake
30. calculated
31. calories
32. carbon
33. change
34. chemical
35. coming
36. common
37. component
38. components
39. compounds
40. conservation
41. consists
42. consuming
43. content
44. created
45. crime
46. crisp
47. cube
48. day
49. dealing
50. defined
51. defines
52. delicious
53. density
54. destroyed
55. dimensions
56. dioxide
57. divided
58. dragging
59. earth
60. easily
61. eating
62. eats
63. element
64. elements
65. elevator
66. energy
67. equal
68. equals
69. equation
70. essentially
71. evaporated
72. exerted
73. exerting
74. expand
75. expands
76. expansion
77. explore
78. extra
79. feet
80. fight
81. finds
82. fission
83. flesh
84. flexible
85. flight
86. fluffy
87. food
88. form
89. frames
90. friction
91. function
92. fusion
93. giant
94. ground
95. grow
96. hand
97. hard
98. harming
99. heart
100. heat
101. height
102. helium
103. hero
104. hotter
105. human
106. hydrogen
107. immortality
108. implies
109. including
110. innocent
111. instance
112. invisibility
113. job
114. jump
115. jungle
116. kind
117. landing
118. large
119. law
120. leg
121. legs
122. lesson
123. lithium
124. macs
125. malleable
126. mass
127. material
128. meaning
129. means
130. mentioned
131. moisture
132. molecules
133. move
134. moves
135. natural
136. normal
137. nuclear
138. nucleus
139. number
140. occurrence
141. option
142. options
143. order
144. organized
145. original
146. oven
147. oxygen
148. pants
149. park
150. particles
151. periodic
152. person
153. physics
154. plant
155. plausible
156. possibilities
157. pound
158. pounds
159. power
160. pressure
161. primary
162. process
163. proton
164. protons
165. provide
166. pump
167. putting
168. question
170. rapid
171. reaction
172. rearrange
173. recombine
174. regular
175. requires
176. resulting
177. results
178. risk
180. rocks
181. roughly
182. run
183. runs
184. sand
185. save
186. scientifically
187. scientist
188. set
189. shifting
190. shoes
191. short
192. silicon
193. sinking
194. size
195. slash
196. socks
197. soil
198. speed
199. sponge
200. square
201. standing
202. stars
203. stay
204. steel
205. strength
206. sun
207. super
208. superhero
209. superheroes
210. superpower
211. supported
212. table
213. talking
214. tall
215. tearing
216. teddy
217. temperature
218. tendons
219. time
220. times
221. towering
222. transforms
223. treat
224. tremendous
225. triples
226. turn
227. turns
228. ultimately
229. utilize
230. volume
231. walk
232. walking
233. weighing
234. weighs
235. weight
236. withstand
237. working