full transcript

From the Ted Talk by Nicholas Leeper: Is there a link between cancer and heart disease?

Unscramble the Blue Letters

How about another example from the blue qnaadurt this time? Well, here we come to one of my favorite cells in the body, which is an immune cell called the macrophage. Now, macrophage is from the geerk, meaning "big eater." And the role of this cell is to patrol the body, like a sentinel, and it looks for iniandvg bacteria. When it sees them, it actually will eat them and rvmeoe them from our body before they can expand and cause an infection. But just like in the last example, there are olcgtioonss who have hypothesized that these macrophages don't just have to eat bacteria, but they also have to look for and eat cancer cells and hopefully get rid of them before they can grow and metastasize. And so there's been a mojar initiative to develop medicines that can increase the appetite of these cells to help them go after those tumors. Now, this story is still in its early days, and it's unclear if this type of an apoapcrh will work. But some of the early siutdes would suggest that patients who have metastatic lymphoma, which you can see spread throughout this person's body on their CAT scan, that they may have a remarkable response to these types of drugs. And you can imagine here that the tumors are melting away as they're being eaten by these cells due to their increased aipetpte. But once again, what we found is that our algorithms predict that, yes, this drug should work for cncaer, but we think it might also work for hreat disease. And so we've now gone back and retrospectively analyzed the same CAT scans from the same cancer patients. But this time, instead of looking at the signal from their tumors, we can look at the signal in their blood vessels. And here I'm pointing with the arrow to the carotid artery. This is the artery that brings the blood to the brain, this is where cardiovascular disease will bliud up in patients before they have a storke. And what we found is that while their cancer was melting away, it looks like their cardiovascular dssaeie was mnietlg away, too. And so, once again, these algorithms are predicting that we may be able to identify therapies that could be dual pepursod to acttak both ciiodtnnos at the same time.

Open Cloze

How about another example from the blue ________ this time? Well, here we come to one of my favorite cells in the body, which is an immune cell called the macrophage. Now, macrophage is from the _____, meaning "big eater." And the role of this cell is to patrol the body, like a sentinel, and it looks for ________ bacteria. When it sees them, it actually will eat them and ______ them from our body before they can expand and cause an infection. But just like in the last example, there are ___________ who have hypothesized that these macrophages don't just have to eat bacteria, but they also have to look for and eat cancer cells and hopefully get rid of them before they can grow and metastasize. And so there's been a _____ initiative to develop medicines that can increase the appetite of these cells to help them go after those tumors. Now, this story is still in its early days, and it's unclear if this type of an ________ will work. But some of the early _______ would suggest that patients who have metastatic lymphoma, which you can see spread throughout this person's body on their CAT scan, that they may have a remarkable response to these types of drugs. And you can imagine here that the tumors are melting away as they're being eaten by these cells due to their increased ________. But once again, what we found is that our algorithms predict that, yes, this drug should work for ______, but we think it might also work for _____ disease. And so we've now gone back and retrospectively analyzed the same CAT scans from the same cancer patients. But this time, instead of looking at the signal from their tumors, we can look at the signal in their blood vessels. And here I'm pointing with the arrow to the carotid artery. This is the artery that brings the blood to the brain, this is where cardiovascular disease will _____ up in patients before they have a ______. And what we found is that while their cancer was melting away, it looks like their cardiovascular _______ was _______ away, too. And so, once again, these algorithms are predicting that we may be able to identify therapies that could be dual ________ to ______ both __________ at the same time.

Solution

  1. melting
  2. quadrant
  3. cancer
  4. studies
  5. remove
  6. attack
  7. stroke
  8. appetite
  9. heart
  10. build
  11. disease
  12. conditions
  13. oncologists
  14. major
  15. approach
  16. invading
  17. greek
  18. purposed

Original Text

How about another example from the blue quadrant this time? Well, here we come to one of my favorite cells in the body, which is an immune cell called the macrophage. Now, macrophage is from the Greek, meaning "big eater." And the role of this cell is to patrol the body, like a sentinel, and it looks for invading bacteria. When it sees them, it actually will eat them and remove them from our body before they can expand and cause an infection. But just like in the last example, there are oncologists who have hypothesized that these macrophages don't just have to eat bacteria, but they also have to look for and eat cancer cells and hopefully get rid of them before they can grow and metastasize. And so there's been a major initiative to develop medicines that can increase the appetite of these cells to help them go after those tumors. Now, this story is still in its early days, and it's unclear if this type of an approach will work. But some of the early studies would suggest that patients who have metastatic lymphoma, which you can see spread throughout this person's body on their CAT scan, that they may have a remarkable response to these types of drugs. And you can imagine here that the tumors are melting away as they're being eaten by these cells due to their increased appetite. But once again, what we found is that our algorithms predict that, yes, this drug should work for cancer, but we think it might also work for heart disease. And so we've now gone back and retrospectively analyzed the same CAT scans from the same cancer patients. But this time, instead of looking at the signal from their tumors, we can look at the signal in their blood vessels. And here I'm pointing with the arrow to the carotid artery. This is the artery that brings the blood to the brain, this is where cardiovascular disease will build up in patients before they have a stroke. And what we found is that while their cancer was melting away, it looks like their cardiovascular disease was melting away, too. And so, once again, these algorithms are predicting that we may be able to identify therapies that could be dual purposed to attack both conditions at the same time.

Frequently Occurring Word Combinations

ngrams of length 2

collocation frequency
heart disease 8
risk factors 6
cardiovascular disease 5
heart attack 5
blue quadrant 3
medical diagnoses 2
jet engine 2
public health 2
cancer gene 2
cardiac risk 2
blood vessels 2
higher risk 2
developing cancer 2
cardiovascular events 2
leading killers 2
algorithms predict 2

Important Words

  1. algorithms
  2. analyzed
  3. appetite
  4. approach
  5. arrow
  6. artery
  7. attack
  8. bacteria
  9. blood
  10. blue
  11. body
  12. brain
  13. brings
  14. build
  15. called
  16. cancer
  17. cardiovascular
  18. carotid
  19. cat
  20. cell
  21. cells
  22. conditions
  23. days
  24. develop
  25. disease
  26. drug
  27. drugs
  28. dual
  29. due
  30. early
  31. eat
  32. eaten
  33. eater
  34. expand
  35. favorite
  36. greek
  37. grow
  38. heart
  39. hypothesized
  40. identify
  41. imagine
  42. immune
  43. increase
  44. increased
  45. infection
  46. initiative
  47. invading
  48. lymphoma
  49. macrophage
  50. macrophages
  51. major
  52. meaning
  53. medicines
  54. melting
  55. metastasize
  56. metastatic
  57. oncologists
  58. patients
  59. patrol
  60. pointing
  61. predict
  62. predicting
  63. purposed
  64. quadrant
  65. remarkable
  66. remove
  67. response
  68. retrospectively
  69. rid
  70. role
  71. scan
  72. scans
  73. sees
  74. sentinel
  75. signal
  76. spread
  77. story
  78. stroke
  79. studies
  80. suggest
  81. therapies
  82. time
  83. tumors
  84. type
  85. types
  86. unclear
  87. vessels
  88. work